Georgian Written Sources on Cyril of Alexandria’s Exegetical Catenae

This paper deals with the 11th-century Georgian translator Ephrem Mtsire's colophon in which he relates the history of creation of the exegetical collection Paul with Commentaries translated by him from Greek. Ephrem Mtsire provides valuable information concerning the work carried out by the compiler of Catena Collection, Cyril of Alexandria.

Keywords: Cyril of Alexandria, exegetics, catenae, Ephrem Mtsire.


Materials on the History of the Town of Tskhinvali

This paper presents the census Book of the town of Tskhinvali (the document is kept at the National Centre of Manuscripts) dated to the second half of the 18th century. Various notes kept in the Book have been reviewed. One part of this document is attached in the paper.


Keywords: Tskhinvali, census, the 18th century.


On National, Political and Cultural Self-Identity of the Sharvashidze Princedom

In the present paper, national political and cultural self-identity of the Sharvashidze princedom, which representatives historically always unambiguously reflected Georgian cultural and political world, has been shown based on relevant historical sources.

Keywords: Sharvashidze, Abkhazia, Georgia.


The Culture of Writing in Medieval Abkhazia

 In this paper an assumption has been expressed that Georgian script occupied a leading part in the epigraphic culture of the medieval Abkhazia and all its calligraphic trends existed in other historical regions of Georgia were presented in it. The existence of other scripts has not been confirmed in Abkhazia at that period.

Keywords: Abkhazia, the Middle Ages, epigraphy, manuscripts, writing


The Fight of the Anti-Soviet Parties Against the Bolshevik Power in Adjara (1921)

 The present paper deals with the analysis of the struggle of anti-soviet parties in Adjara against the Bolshevik power in 1921. Against the background of anti-soviet protests, the repressions carried out by Bolsheviks against the parties often resulting in executions have been considered.

Keywords: Adjara, party, the year of 1921, anti-soviet.


Third Wave Georgian Immigrant Women in the USA: Problems of Americanization.

The present paper deals with such issues as: what the rate of Americanization among Georgian immigrant women of the third wave is, what impact the age, education level, social status have on this process; what role Christianity plays in keeping the Georgian immigrants' national consciousness. The conclusions are mainly based on the questionnaire conducted among the immigrants.

Keywords: woman, Georgian, immigrant, the USA.


Was it in 1928 that the data about Georgian manuscripts kept at the University of Graz became known in Georgia for the first time?

The academic circles became aware of the existence of the oldest Georgian manuscripts kept at the University of Graz in 1928 when A.Shanidze published Schuchardt's research on Georgian manuscripts that fell in his hands in the "Bulletin of the University of Tiflis". In reality, 30 years earlier Schuchardt reported about these manuscripts some of his colleges and a couple of organizations.

Keywords: Graz, Georgian manuscripts, Schuchardt, A.Khakhanashvili


Dialogue of Cultures: Stereotyped Models of Conceptual Thinking (On the Example of Arabic and Georgian Proverbs)

The present paper aims to interpret the proverb - a formula modeled as a certain concept in a given mentality - in the context of different cultures. On the basis of comparative study of Arabic and Georgian parallels, falling within the semantic model "everyone finds his/her match", it is identified how the given stereotyped wisdom is  being created.

Keywords: Key words: proverb, Georgian, Arabic, ethnoconsciousness, metaphor


Frontier System of Georgia: Problems of the Northern Borders in Antiquity

The paper deals with the history of Georgian northern frontiers. In ancient times the defense of Dvaleti and Daryali gates provided the security for the northern frontier. Besides Georgian kingdoms, the northern borders of Georgia were also the focus of attention of world empires. 

Keywords: Georgia, frontier, north, antique epoch


Functioning of the Abkhazian Language in Education

This paper gives an overview of the functioning of the Abkhazian language in education from the 19th century to the present day and emphasizes the efforts of the Abkhazian and Georgian scholars to promote literacy. It is shown that the language policy conducted by the Russian tsarist regime and later by the Soviet Union hindered a full-scale use of the local language that had a serious impact on the ethnic identity of the Abkhazian people. 

Keywords: Abkhazian language, school, language policy


Georgian Manuscripts in the European Depositories (National Library of France)

Close connection of Georgian literary tradition with monastic and literary centers of the Christian East is considered on the basis of four manuscripts kept in the collection of Georgian manuscripts at the National Library of France.

Keywords: manuscript, Georgian, National Library of France


On the “Building” Inscription of the Tsavkisi Church

In scholarly literature there existed an opinion that the Tsavkisi church was built in 1493 by an Armenian priest which was evidenced from the inscription done in Armenian language on the church wall. It has been studied that the mentioned inscription might be brought and put into the wall in the second half of the 18th century.


Keywords: Tsavkisi church, inscription, Armenian


The Homeland Problem of Indo-European Language-Speaking Peoples

This paper deals with the questions of the formation of so-called Proto-Indo-European linguistic system. An attempt of localization of the initial spreading of Indo-European languages in southern Middle Asia and northern Iran has been offered.

Usage of the terms Middle Asia and Central Asia and their translation from Russian is discussed. English-language publications have used ‘Central Asia' to refer to areas of the former USSR, to areas of China and Mongolia and to areas that cross the former-Soviet/Chinese border. Use of Middle Asia to refer to Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan collectively, avoids this ambiguity.

Keywords: Proto-Indo-European homeland, archaeological culture, hypothesis, Indo-European studies


About Several Aspects of Michael Tarkhnishvili’s Kartvelological Work

Michael Tarkhnishvili is one of the most prominent representatives of the Georgian science. He enriched Kartvelology with significant works and facilitated the growth of interest towards the Georgian culture in Europe. The given paper discusses the main aspects of Tarkhnishvili's researches and his desert.

Keywords: ecclesiastic writing, Kartvelology, the history of the Georgian church


From the Vocabulary of Old Georgian Language: MANDA

In Old Georgian language the word "manda" meant "there". Hence, in certain cases it was used with the meaning "here". The necessity of demarcation of two opposite meanings of the word emerged. Therefore, "manda" remained in the language with its old meaning, while the adverb "aka" came into use as an index of the proximity to the first person.

Keywords: Georgian, here, old, there, vocabulary


Georgia’s ''Caucasian Role'' and Russia – 1918-1921 and the Current Situation

The given paper discusses Georgia's "Caucasian role" and its relations with the neighboring Caucasian nations. It shows Russian's approach to the problem of inter-Caucasian relationships and highlights Western aspirations of the Caucasian countries. Parallels are drawn between the current situation and the policy of 1918-1921.

Keywords: Georgia, International Relations, Russia, the Caucasus, 1918-1921


The Problem of the Creative Freedom of the Artist in Totalitarian Country (According to Grigol Robakidze’s ''The Murdered Soul'')

The given paper analyses an actual problem of the relationship of a totalitarian state and an artist. It discusses a disastrous influence of a totalitarian regime on the creative freedom of an artist on the example of Grigol Robakidze's novel "The murdered soul".

Keywords: artist, Grigol Robakidze, totalitarian regime


The Question of the Etymology of Several Georgian Anthroponyms and Toponyms

The etymology of Atskuri is connected with water. It consists of a prefix - a and a base - tskur. The latter is connected with the Georgian words: tskali, tskaro, tskar-, tsku-, tskor- and others. The given paper discusses Azerbaijani and Armenian scholars' falsification of the etymology and history of Atskuri.

Keywords: Atskuri episcopacy, etymology, Kartvelian words


The Questions of Chronology, Stages of Development and Typology of the Trialeti Culture Axes

The given paper deals with the bronze axes of the Trialeti culture. Near Eastern and North Caucasian samples closely related to South Caucasian axes are singled out and discussed. The paper makes an attempt to specify the chronology, stages of development and typology of the samples.

Keywords: axe, chronology, the Trialeti Culture, typology


The Tsova-Tushians in the Georgian Sociocultural World

The given paper presents a short lingvoculturological analysis of the life of the Tsova-Tushians. The peculiarities of their language, folklore, life and work are revealed. Significant aspects of the historical past and the current situation are discussed.

Keywords: Georgia, lingvoculturology, self-consciousness, sheep-breeding, the Tsova-Tushians


About Some Important Aspects of Using Abbreviations and SMS Language in the Modern English

The abbreviation and SMS Language is very developed nowadays. Despite a lot of problems connected with their usage, they have become an integral part of the contemporary English language. This process is the result of globalization and the part of the development of civilization. 

Keywords: Abbreviation, Modern English, Orthography, SMS Language


About the Formation of the Pragmatic Coherence of the Discourse

The given paper discusses the problem of the creation of a coherent integrity of the expressions containing the interpretation and construction of textual schemes.

Keywords: Discourse, coherence, pragmatism


Some Unknown Details about the Contradiction between Iran and Kartl-Kakheti Kingdom (1795)

The archival material enabled us to review the considerations about The Battle of Krtsanisi presented in the Georgian historiography and to unveil some unknown details of the initial stage of the Battle of Krtsanisi (according to the documentary material). 

Keywords: Artillery, Erekle II, the Battle of Krtsanisi, the 18th century


The Abkhazian Language and the Georgian Graphics

The Abkhazian literary language was transferred to the Georgian graphics in 1938-1954. The given paper deals with the unknown archival material and discusses the history of transference.

Keywords: The history of the Abkhazian literary language, the history of the Abkhazian writing, the transference of the Abkhazian literary language to the Georgian graphics


The Comparative Study of the Emotional Concept Anger in the English, Georgian and Russian Languages

The given paper deals with the psychological and linguistic study of the emotion, which is nominated in the Georgian, Russian and English languages with the words: brazi/гнев/anger.

Keywords: anger, culture, emotion, language


The Georgian Toponyms on the Territory of the North Caucasus (1944-1957)

The given paper relies on the documentary material and discusses the unification of the North Caucasian and Georgian territories in the 40s of the 20th century. The replacement of the local toponyms with Georgian names is revealed and the etymology-semantics of the Georgian toponyms are analyzed.

Keywords: Administrative boarders, Georgia, the Georgian toponyms, the North Caucasus


The Modality of Young People’s Discourse

The given paper discusses an interactive modality of the Georgian and German girls and boys on the basis of empirical material, which is presented in audio/video recordings.

Keywords: analysis of discourse, interactive modality, language of youth, the German and Georgian girls and boys


The Peculiarities of Secret and Open Lingual Planning in Georgia of the 19th-20th centuries (Censorship)

The given paper discusses different aspects of the lingual censorship on the example of Georgia. In socio-linguistic literature censorship is studied in the context of the so-called secret lingual planning.

The activities of censorship services appeared in Georgia in the distant past and our country has undergone different stages in accordance to the changes of ideological tasks. In the 19th -20th centuries the functioning of the Georgian language was regulated by foreign forces. It subordinated to the ideological aims of the foreign country. Therefore, the specific types of censorship activities appeared.

Keywords: Censorship, open lingual planning, secret lingual planning, subtext


The Problem of a Person Placed between Higher and Lower Feelings (on the example of the Georgian Literature)

The theme of the given paper is the literary character of Don Juan, particularly, the problem of Datiko's (from I. Chavchavadze's ,,Glakhis Naambobi") transformation in the Georgian literature (on the examples of Ieremia Tsarba, Tariel Mklavadze, Titiko Droidze, Sapar-Beg and Gaioz Gadalendia).

Keywords: I. Chavchavadze’s “Glakhis Naambobi”, Datiko, the type of Don Juan, the Georgian literature


What Determines the Constructions of a Verb in the Georgian language?

The structure of the Georgian verb is polypersonal. There is a particular syntactical connection between the verb and actants. Therefore, morphosyntactic constructions are created on the basis of this connection. The system of conjugation of the Georgian verb shows two main constructions: changeable and unchangeable. The reasons of their existence must be searched in the transitiveness.

Keywords: Construction, transitive/intransitive, variable/invariable, voice


For the Question of the Relation between the Texts of Jacob’s compline and “The Martyrdom of Saint Abo”

The spread of Christianity by Christ's Saint Apostles Andria, Svimeon Kananeli and Matata determined the character of the practice of Christian divine service in our country. The texts of Apostle Jacob's compline were translated into the Georgian language during the early stage of the spread of Christianity. Iovane Sabanisdze used it as one of the literary sources of "The Martyrdom of Saint Abo".

Keywords: compline, Iovane Sabanis Dze, source, “The Martyrdom of Saint Abo”


The Question of Social Sensibleness of the Vocabulary Denoting Place-owning in the Georgian Language

The change of a socio-political context influences a human being's place-owning relation. The results of the poll proved, that from this point of view, the gap between age groups is increasing. The Georgian language shows vividly the weakening of the process of unity of the collective under the mark of place-owning.

Keywords: ideographic dictionary, partitiveness, semantics of the vocabulary of location, vocabulary of housing


The Regional Identity – Georgia’s Center and Periphery (1900-1917)

The given paper discusses the role and involvement of the regional identity, center and periphery in the process of consolidation of the Georgian nation in 1900-1917.

Keywords: center, identity, periphery, the Georgian nation, 1900-1917


Religious Affiliation of the Benedictine monks of Mount Athos

The paper studies Greek hagiographic monuments, Mount Athos Acts and Leo Ostiensis "chronicles", where information about the Benedictine monks of Mount Athos can be found. The author tries to reject Elene Metreveli's idea that the Benedictine monks of Mount Athos were Catholics and endeavours to justify his position about the Benedictine monks being orthodox Christians. 


Keywords: Mount Athos, Hagiography, the Great Schism, Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity


The function of Kh-//H- Prefix in the forms of I-Prefix Passive Voice in Ancient Georgian Language

In the written monuments of Khanmet-Haemet the existence of Kh-//H- Prefix in all three person forms of I-Prefix Passive Voice is a norm (ხჳქმენ, ხიქმენ, ხიქმნა...). The article aims to understand the function of the Kh-//H- Prefix.

Keywords: I-Prefix Passive Voice, Khanmet, Haemet, Phonetics, Aspiration


About an epigraph of Ilia Chavchavadze’s one Verse

The Article argues that the epigraph of Ilia Chavchavaze’s verse “Worker” is not taken from a work of the outstanding Russian poet, Nekrasov, as it was considered until now, but from “Российская империя“ (“Russian Empire”), a verse by a famous poet, Revolutionary Democrat Nikoloz Ogarev.

Keywords: Ilia Chavchavadze, Epigraph of the verse “Worker”, Nikoloz Ogarev.


Georgian Literary Life in the Epoch of Social Realism from the Prism of Comparative Literature

The specifics of Soviet Literature were defined not only by the original writings of the fifteen Republics within the Soviet Union but also by the existing Translations. In the Soviet Union Translations as well as Literary Relations, just like the original literature, were being controlled by the government and it was absolutely necessary to observe the rules of Social Realism even during the Translation process.

Keywords: Social Realism; Artistic Translation; Literary Relations; Georgian Literature


Interrelation of Colchian and Koban Cultures According to Burial Constructions and Funerary Customs (Late Bronze – Early Iron Age)

The article deals with the Colchian and Koban Cultures of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, the interrelation of Colchian and Koban Cultures According to Burial Constructions and Funerary Customs, which has not been of particular interest sphere of research until now. 

Keywords: Colchian Culture, Koban Culture, Caucasus, Burial Constructions, Funerary Customs


Philanthropist women of the 19th century in the United States of America and Georgia: Parallels of Philanthropy

The article deals with the work of XIX century Philanthropist women and draws a parallel between the charitable and cultural-educational activities carried out by Georgian women during the same period.  

Keywords: Women Movement, Women rights, Georgia, United States of America, Charity


Vocabulary denoting Hearing-Perception in Georgian Language

The article deals with the analysis of hearing and understanding lexis in Georgian language, and the relation of analysed concepts with the process of heading-understanding and communication. The issue whether the neutral-nominative words are appropriate for Kartvelian languages and an attempt to create a full picture of generalization. 

Keywords: Lexis of Hearing, Understanding and Perceiving, Semantic Analysis, Lexical Analysis


Axes in the Ancient and Early Middle Ages in Iberia-Colchis

The article deals with the issue of topography, chronology and typology of fighting and agricultural Axes spread in Georgia in the ancient and the first stage of Early Middle Ages (VI century B.C- VII century A.D). While discussing certain types of earlier samples are also presented. The work is based not only on archaeological sources, but on written sources as well.

Keywords: Fighting Axes, Ancient Period, Early Middle Ages, Iberia-Colchis


Folk Imagology: Georgian Ethnic stereotype in Russian Mass Culture

One of the successful sphere for the settlement and development of ethnic stereotype, due to the nature of discourse, can be regarded Mass Culture, namely Folk Imagology. The article deals with the typical characteristics of Georgian Ethnic stereotype based on Folk Material and Jokes.

Keywords: Ethnic stereotype, Folk Imagology


Some Ceramic Forms in Eastern Georgia (I-IV Centuries A.D)

The article deals with some Ceramic Forms discovered in eastern Georgia dating from I-IV centuries A.D., which are rather interesting due to their form or rarity and are totally different from those objects that were being used for everyday use. Such ceramic form has never been an object for research until now.

Keywords: Eastern Georgia, late classical period, Glazed Pottery, amphoriskos, Askos


The Colophons accompanying the Aton Edition of the Gospel Manuscript and the Issue of the Establishment of the Aton Edition

The article deals with the Wills of the Translator/Editor accompanying the Manuscript of Aton Edition of the Gospel, which supplies us with various information and issues connected with the last edition of the Georgian Translation of the Gospel, such as: how Aton Edition of the Gospel developed, where and when did Giorgi Mtatsmindeli start his work, how Giorgi Mtatsmindeli perceived his work as a new translation or an edition of the older version.

Keywords: Gospel, Manuscript of Giorgi Mtatsmindeli’s Aton Edition of the Gospel, Colophons.


Trade Activities of Chios in North Africa in Antiquity; An Observation Based on the Transport Amphorae

One of the earliest colonizing activities of the Greeks is linked with the territory of North Africa, where they established settlements of trade. Due to these activities Greek painted pottery as well as transport amphorae are can be discovered on different sites in this region. Chian transport amphorae discovered here attest the great demand for wine in this region in Antiquity.

Keywords: Amphora, Greek Colonization, Stamped Amphora Handles.


Verbs denoting Motion in the Georgian Language

 The article deals with the Georgian verbs of motion, in particular, the description of verbs with expressive movement according to the methodology of cognitive linguistics. The article outlines electronic dictionary settings of the verbs dealing with motion.

Keywords: Cognitive Linguistics, Semantic Analysis, Verbs of Motion, Directions of Motion, the Manner of Motion.


Byzantium’s ‘Geopolitics of Christianity’: Case of Kartli

The role of Christianity in Roman world has been a widely discussed subject. Scholars however do not pay attention to how the new religion was used by the Roman and later Byzantine emperors to defend their frontiers against powerful enemies coming from the Eurasian steppes of the East. The case of Kartli will be shown as a good example that Christianization in most instances was not an accidental process, but rather a purposeful policy led by the imperial authorities in Constantinople.

Keywords: Christianity, Kartli, Byzantium, Goths, Sasanians


Newly Discovered Church in Historical Imiertao (South-Western Georgia)

The article deals with the newly revealed medieval church on the territory of Turkey, in the historic province of Imiertao. Its alleged reconstruction and stylistic analysis has been done, based on which it is perceived as 10th century triconch (triple apsis) type church.

Keywords: Triconch- type church, Imierao, Reconstruction, Plan


The Logical Terminology of the Georgian Translations of The Ladder of Divine Ascend by John Climacus

The Ladder of Divine Ascend by John Climacus is an interesting work in many ways. Translation of the text into various languages as well as equalization it with The Ten Commandments by Moses is rather an important issue. The article aims to analyze several logical terms, which is inherent for the texts, translated in different periods and cultural environments. 

Keywords: John Climacus, the Ladder of Divine Ascend, Logical Terminology


The Problem of Individualism in the Works by Vazha-Pshavela

The article deals with the problem of relationship between the individual and the society; the attitude of the author towards the ethic concept of individualism.

Keywords: Vazha-Pshavela, the problem of relationship between the individual and the society, individualism


The Terms and Concepts Related to the Phono semantics of the Kartvelian languages

The publication presents the related terms of Phono semantics in Kartvelian stems and provides an analysis, which can be found in Georgian or Foreign scholarly works. This paper discusses the relationship of the terms and their general and specific meanings, along with their main features. The article mainly addresses the Georgian or Foreign false terms and concepts adjusted to Georgian Scholarly literature. 

Keywords: Phono semantics, Onomatopoeia, Bgertsera (soundwriting), sound symbolism.


“Sound Poetry” in the Context of New Syncretism

The article aims to study the most characteristic feature of modern literary art – new syncretism on the example of Zurab Rtveliashvili, Sound Poetry and his art in general. The essence of new syncretism is to be found in the removal of the established genre borders by their hybridization.  

Keywords: New syncretism, Sound Poetry, merging the traditional and non-traditional arts, Zurab Rtveliashvili.


Chechen Heroic “Illi” and the Ballads of the Eastern Georgian Highlanders (similarities and differences)

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Chechen heroic illi and Georgian ballad present precisely and powerfully the mentality of the warrior society of the Chechen and Georgian highlanders, their heroic ideals and the psychology of the people who are involved in battles on a daily basis. As a result of comparative study artistic, structural and conceptual similarities as well as differences between the two genres of folklore have been revealed.

Keywords: Folklore, Chechen, “Illi”, Georgian Ballad.


Comparative Study of the Literary works by Moses of Chorene and Koryun

The work considers the creation of the Armenian, Georgian and Albanian alphabets by the famous public figure Mesrop Mashtots. On the grounds of a textual analysis of the Armenian writers Koryun and Moses of Chorene the factual differences between them are presented. Comparative study offers a firm basis for considering the reliability of the accounts offered by Moses of Chorene.   

Keywords: Koryun, Moses of Chorene, Mesrop Mashtsots, Georgian Alphabet.


Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy as an Intertext to the Smile of Dyonisus by K. Gamsakhurdia

The article aims to explore literary parallels between the writings of the two authors of two different nationalities and epochs.  These works are: Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri from the 16th c. and the novel by the 20th c. Georgian modernist author Konstantine Gamsakhurdia The Smile of Dyonisus.  The literally parallel is based upon their thematic similarity. Both authors use the theme of descending into hell as the main pattern. Considering the fact that Gamsakhurdia was well acquainted with the Alighieri’s work and analyzed it critically, we are obviously dealing with the use of text as a model.  

Keywords: Alighieri, Gamsakhurdia, Hell, Archetype, Paralel.


For understanding the ‘Youth’ of the Maccabean Martyrs

The Martyrdom of the Maccabees is a Hagiographical piece based on bibliology books.  The [Georgian] text of The Martyrdom was published by Prof. Ivane Imnaishvili in 1980. Yet, the martyrdom from a literary point of view has not yet attracted a scholarly interest. This article presents one of the key aspects of the piece and attempts to understand the youth of the martyrs.   

Keywords: Maccabees, Maccabean, Non-Canonical, Hagiography, Imagology, Youth, Young


The Allegory of the Man who Fell Into a Well in The Knight in the Panther’s Skin and its Artistic Function

The Knight in the Panther’s Skin offers an allegory of the man who fell in a well. The story is real and is used for developing a communication between characters; it also has a function of identifying the psychological condition. The allegory by its meaning is very important and has a function and a mission of foretelling the future. With the allegory of the man who fell in a well we met Avtandil, Tariel and Asmat (the main characters of the poem). This allegory is a prediction of Tariel’s being taken away from the cave or being woken up from the “cave consciousness”. This article offers an analysis regarding Avtandil, tariel and Asmat as a paradigm images of the man who fell in a well.  

Keywords: allegory, man who fell in a well, cave consciousness


The Epitaphs of the Amilakhvari Family from Samtavisi (19th c.)

The article presents the 19th century epitaphs of those members of the Amilakhvari family, whose data can be traced in archives of some other sources. This research aims to encourage the establishment and emendation of the chronological and genealogical accounts about the Amilakhvari Family. 

Keywords: The Amilakhvari Family, Samtavsii, Epitaph, Chala


The Peculiarities of Presenting Violence in the Work of Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio

The theme of violence in the work of Le Clezio is first of all created by contrasting the special units such as nature and urban environment and the images and symbols reflecting their opposition. A modern city through the eyes of a writer poses a danger to the existence of the human being, since it generates false values of life. Its extremely abstract architecture emphasizes the suffocating nature of the space. The influence of modern technologies on human beings is also considered as forms of violence. So are the consumer principles that are revealed at its most precisely in urban environment. The existence of a human being under such conditions is evaluated as a war. 

Keywords: Imagination, violence, city, nature, war.


About One Iranism in the Classic Hebrew

The question raised in the article serves to advance the relevance of the research of Iranian-Semitic linguistic relations and aims at revealing the ways of establishing pairi-daeza (which originated from the oldest Iranian source) in the late Biblical Hebrew.

Keywords: Garden, Paradise, The Bible


About the Masters of Painting of Matskhvarishi Taringzeli Church

The paper is dedicated to the painting of the Church of the Archangels in Matskvarishi, Latali community of Zemo Svaneti. In our opinion, three masters participated in its creation. Their handwritings differ in terms of color and modeling.

Keywords: Archangels, Latali, Matskhvarishi, monumental painting, Upper Svaneti


An Interdisciplinary Method of Traceology and Prospects of its Usage in Archeology

  Current archeological studies include integrated researches of various scientific spheres. One of them is the study of artifacts by a traceological method that is the best means for the reconstruction of the prehistoric economic system. In Georgia less attention is paid to the study of the stone tools via a traceological method. The goal of the paper is the popularization of this method in archeology.

Keywords: macro-traceology, micrometric method, phyto-traceology, traceology


Analysis of Katharine Vivian’s English Translation of “A Book of Wisdom and Lies” by Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani

The article deals with the English translation of Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani's work "A book of wisdom and lies" translated by English Kartvelologist Katharine Vivian. It also emphasizes the meaning and purpose of translation.

Keywords: fable, Sulkhan-Saba, translation, Vivian, Wisdom of lies


Georgia in the French Sources of the Second Half of the 16th Century

The paper introduces to the Georgian scientific circulation a full coverage of three correspondences of French diplomat of the 16th century. The importance of the given documents grows due to the fact that there are no contemporaneous sources depicting a domestic as well as a foreign political situation of Georgia of the 16th century.

Keywords: European sources, Georgia, the Ottoman Empire


Georgian Translations of Ernest Hemingway’s Story “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place”: Some Examples of the Analysis of Translation Equivalency

   As far as the style of Hemingway’s fictional prose is deemed laconic, the peculiarity of the Georgian translations of a seemingly simple text acquires a particular importance. The paper deals with a comparative linguo-stylistic analysis of a short story by Ernest Hemingway in terms of the content and a stylistic accuracy of its two Georgian translations.

Keywords: domestication, equivalency, literary translation, style


Mythologem of a Mill and a Miller in Oral Speech and Fiction

The whole system of stereotypic views are met on the topics of a mill and a miller in Georgian and European peoples’ oral speech and literature. This system comprises very important elements for the study of socio-religious processes and folk mythological imaginations. The paper discusses these mythologems from a comparativistic viewpoint.

Keywords: mill, mythos, witch


The Perception of Ethnicity in the Georgian Hagiography

    The study of the terms denoting ethnicity acquires a great importance during the research of the phenomenon of ethnicity. The Georgian hagiography, which is distinguished with a deep historicism, becomes a unique source for the study of the given issue. We put an accent on the meanings of the terms relative and nation presented in “The martyrdom of Abo Tbileli” and “The life of St. Grigol from Khantsta”. The definitions of these terms help us in the understanding of the ethnicity of the given period.

Keywords: ethnicity, Georgian hagiography, self-perception, the life of St. Grigol from Khantsta, the martyrdom of St. Abo


The Plastunkian Georgians (History and Contemporaneousness)

The given paper relies on the documental materials and reveals the history of the foundation of the Georgian village Plastunka (a part of Adleri region – an administrative division of town Sotchi of Krasnodar region in the Russian Federation), which appeared approximately 150 years ago on the valley of the river Sotchi, 15 kilometers away from town Sotchi.

Who are the Georgians from Sotchi (Plastunka)? How long have they been living here and what was the reason of their migration to the coast of the Black Sea? How is the native language preserved? What about today’s situation? Which are their perspectives in the conditions of today’s globalization? The paper answers these questions.

Keywords: Plastunka, Muhajiroba, the Lechkhumians, Georgian Plastunkian figures, Georgian school, theatre


The Seventh Century Conquest of Kartli by Habib ibn Maslamah within the Context of the Arabic Wars

The following article discusses history of the Principality of Kartli (former Kingdom of Iberia) in the 40s-50s of the seventh century from the standpoint of Arabic conquests. The research aims to uncover the facts that the subjugation of Kartli was not instantaneous and the treaty of peace and security granted to the Georgians by Habib ibn Maslamah was similar to the treaties concluded on the territories of Iran and Syria-Palestine. 

Keywords: of Kartli, Habib ibn Maslamah, the Arabs’ conquering wars


Transnistrian Volunteers in the Conflict of Abkhazia

The paper presents the facts about the participation of the Transnistrian volunteers in the  conflict of Abkhazia of 1992-1993. For this purpose, the reports of the volunteers are used. Additionally, the author interviewed one of ex-combatants during his visit in Tiraspol in 2016. 

Keywords: conflict of Abkhazia, Transnistrian volunteers


„Robustos Viribus“ Georgians and „Effeminatus“ Greeks

The article presents the attitude of Latin historian William of Tyre to the Georgians as to the most distinguished fighters. The Archbishop of Tyre interestingly compares Latin and Byzantine soldiers and with a great respect as well as proud characterises the Iberians as brave warriors. We considered it interesting to take this issue forward and to discuss it in detail.

Keywords: Byzantine, Crusaders, everyday history, Iberians, Latin East.


A Gender Transformation in the Character of Style of Clothing and Dressing in Post-Soviet Georgia

The paper discusses the peculiarity of dressing in post-Soviet Georgia and its relation to the gender equality. We mention that a gender stereotype is maintained in women’s and men’s representations in the streets of post-Soviet Tbilisi. At the same time, the tendencies of pluralisation and liberalisation of styles is actively developed.

Keywords: clothes, gender, identification, liberalisation, post-Soviet Georgia.


Clay Unguentaria from Urbnisi

The cemetery of the 1st-3rd centuries A.D. excavated in Urbnisi in 1953-1963 is very important for the research of trade and cultural-economical relations of this period. However, most of the found materials are still unstudied.

The paper presents the typological classification of the clay unguentaria and grave complexes found in the cemetery. The unguentaria are interesting, because their shape is quite unusual for this period and has no analogues. Therefore, the date is determined according to the accompanying materials and the development of the shape of the clay vessels.

Keywords: unguentarium, cemetery.


Fredrick Nietzsche’s Conception of the Tragic Art - the Criticism of Galaktion’s Reception

The paper discusses the reception of Friedrich Nietzsche’s philosophy in Georgian poet Galaktion Tabidze’s notes and diaries. The relevance or irrelevance of Galaktion’s reception to Nietzsche’s philosophy is proved via the relevant citations taken from the philosopher’s works and via a general analysis.

Keywords: Dionysian, metaphysics, proving, torture, tragic.


From the History of the Relicts of Mtis (Mount) St. George Monastery — St. George Icon of Agara and its Origin

So-called St. George Icon of Agara is one of the most important artifacts from the survived relicts of Mtis (Mount) St. George Monastery. This icon of the 11th c. was brought to this monastery in Racha region from the village Khorga of Samegrelo region. Later, the icon was carried to the newly built church in the village Agara. This article is dedicated to the origin of Icon of Agara, the dynamics and the reasons of its transportation.

Keywords: Agara, Khorga, Monastery, Mtis (Mount), St. George.


Georgia and the reasons of the failure of post-soviet Russia’s initial integration projects

The article discusses the first integrative projects enacted by Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The disintegrating processes in the post-Soviet space and official Moscow's failed attempts of reintegration are also analyzed, which is important to clearly perceive Georgia's geopolitical reality of that period.

Keywords: CIS, integration, politics, post-Soviet, Russia.


Initial survey of unknown complex settlement in the valley of Chkhere river in Stepantsminda, Greater Caucasus, Sakartvelo.

The author delivers the coherent description of the encountered remains of the unknown historical settlement located atop distinctive topographical feature in vicinity to Darial Pass/Dariali Gorge. The report shows immense possibilities for further methodological undertaking, its importance and necessity in the light of the modern development leading to a possible loss of the rich, but fragile historical heritage of Georgian nation as well as countries in close and further neighborhood.

Keywords: archaeology, Greater Caucasus, Khevi region, settlement, survey.


On the Comprehensibility of „Guidebooks“ in the Banking Field

The paper aims to carry out the comparative analysis of German and Georgian guidebooks in the field of banking. The research is chiefly focused on the text comprehension model, because the study of instructions in the field of banking identifies certain linguistic features of a text. A text must be comprehensible for a reader in order for the latter to perform the banking transactions correctly and legally.

Keywords: guidebook, instructional text, the language of a particular field.


Painting and Lia Sturua’s Reminiscences

The paper examines Lia Sturua's poetic reminiscences and their relationship with painting via relying on her lyrical works. It discusses the topics covered in Lia Sturua's verses, for instance, the disruption of values, peculiarities of creative works of artists, the importance of culture and the role of the art in life.

Keywords: art, painting, poetry, Impressionists, Pirosmani.


Political Neologisms in Global Politics and the Issue of their Transposition from English into Georgian

The present article aims to analyze one of the most problematic issues of the modern translation studies, the translation of neologisms. More specifically, the article concentrates on the modern English political neologisms, translation strategies for their transposition into Georgian and outlines the main tendencies.

Keywords: political neologisms, translation strategies, transliteration.


Sandro Tsirekidze's View on the Genre of Miniature

The paper discusses Sandro Tsirekidze’s view on the genre of the miniature. Sandro Tsirekidze clearly formulated his viewpoint on the origin and task of this genre. He paid a special attention to the artistic-aesthetic principles of the miniature and made an attempt to separate it from other small prosaic genres.

Keywords: miniature, prose, rhythm, Sandro Tsirekidze.


Some Ottoman Sources on One Metochion of Iviron Monastery in Melnik

Ottoman sources about the Iviron Monastery have not yet been the subject of academic inquiry in Georgia. Exploration of the history of Iviron of the period following the fall of Constantinople is of great importance in gaining a better understanding of the presence of Georgians, their activities, their role, as well as the property indicated in the records referring to the Monastery and, largely, for the study of its history.

Keywords: Iviron, Ottoman, the Rozhen Monastery.


Some Religious Symbols in D. H. Lawrence’s Novel “The Plumed Serpent”

D. H. Lawrence is one of the important modern English writers, whose works, like his contemporaries’ ones, are full of intertextual layers and the author’s individual interpretations. His novel “The Plumed Serpent” (published in 1926) is one of these examples.

The article analyzes some religious symbols, like the symbolism of a serpent and a bird, the ritual meaning of the bullfight, a lake and a boatman’s symbolism given in the novel. Meanings of the above-mentioned symbols give additional hints about the journey of the main character, European Kate. The journey itself traces the process of a spiritual rebirth of the character.


religious symbols, The Plumed Serpent, lake, boatman, rebirth


Teaching Polysemous Words to High School Students

The paper presents an innovative method of teaching polysemous words to high school students which enables them to easily understand and memorize meanings of polysemous words and idioms. Studies in cognitive linguistics show that polysemous words form a structure of interrelated senses, which can be described and made explicit. This approach can be transferred and used in teaching the vocabulary of foreign languages.

The article also contains a plan of a lesson that serves as a guide for teachers of the English language in teaching polysemous words.

Keywords: Cognitive mechanisms, polysemous nouns, semantic bridges, teaching the vocabulary


Tennessee Williams’ “Streetcar Named Desire” - Principles of Contrastive Analysis of Translations Made by V. Nedelin, G. Jabashvili and L. Inasaridze

The paper focuses on the contrastive analysis of translations of Tennessee Williams’ “Streetcar Named Desire” made by V. Nedelin, G. Jabashvili and L. Inasaridze. The research has proved that all the translations are based on a unified strategic approach characteristic of the verbocentric version. Certain differences have also been outlined, based on the peculiarities of the recipient cultures (Russian and Georgian) as well as the diverse creative styles of the translators.

Keywords: contrastive analysis, linguopersona, symbol, translation, toponym.


The “Life” of Gregory the Enlightener Presented in Manuscript H404 of the National Centre of Manuscripts

The paper discusses the Georgian text of the “Life” of Gregory the Enlightener presented in Manuscript H404 of the National Centre of Manuscripts. The major novelty of our research is the fact that this text can be considered as the new unknown Georgian version of the composition. The differences between this version and other redactions are significant.

Keywords: Armenian manuscript, the life of Gregory the Enlightener.


The Basics of Formation of Consciousness of the Experiencing Autobiographer: Emotion and Cognition (Based on “My Adventure” by Akaki Tsereteli)

The paper proves that in conditions of the absence of the verbal thought, observation of emotions in “My Adventure” is the only way of studying the consciousness of the experiencing autobiographer. The methodological basis of the paper is Alan Palmer’s concept of integrity of mentality worked out in accordance to Searle’s taxonomy.

Keywords: Akaki Tsereteli, autobiography, cognition, emotion, narratology.


The Complex Negative Nominal Lexemes in Georgian: Structure and Principles of the Functional Distribution

The paper focuses on the structure, chronological development and functional distribution of the complex negative nominal lexemes. Out of the arbitrarily distinguished four groups of such lexemes, the most productive are those with negative particles ara-/ar- "no/not". They appeared in Old Georgian texts and gradually became more widespread in contemporary Georgian. The particles ara-/ar- "no/not" form antonymous pairs in the literary Georgian. They are widely used in the formation of the terminological system. These lexemes also create the peculiar nominal forms in the live Georgian speech. The analysis of these forms reveals the chief and facultative functions of particles ara-/ar- "no/not": the categorical negation and its actualization (emphasis). The particles ara-/ar- "no/not" are capable of combining these two meanings. This is especially obvious if we compare these lexemes with the nominal elements containing prefix u-, which denotes absence.

Keywords: chronology, function negation, structure, the Georgian language.


The Economic Side of the Conflict in Tskhinvali Region

While studying the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, it is very important to draw parallels between the beginning and the last phase of the conflict. One of the important and interesting sides of the conflict is the economic factor. The study and comparative analysis will yield a significant information for the scientific analysis of the given period.

Keywords: Conflict in Tskhinvali Region, Democratic Republic of Georgia.


The Elements of Postmodernism in Harold Pinter’s Play “The Homecoming”

The paper aims to define some key elements for proving the idea about the existence of postmodernist bases in the given play. Pinter uses the simplest vocabulary and daily themes for the dialogues. Depending on these dialogues, a reader/spectator can easily perceive how far these relationships are from the true family relations. It also should be noted that in the world, where we live today, in this reality, researching Pinter’s plays is really important.

Keywords: absurd, Harold Pinter, Postmodernism, reality, unreality.


The Essence of Art and Artist in Iris Murdoch’s Novel “The Black Prince”

The main aim of this paper is to show the key essence of the art in society on the example of Murdoch’s most famous novel “The Black Prince”. This novel allows a reader to have a clear understanding of art, its role and purpose. This issue is almost very common not only in Murdoch's novels, but in her critical essays and articles as well. The paper shows the purpose of art and its function in the society. The conclusion summarizes the final view of the art by means of Iris Murdoch’s outlook and her novel “The Black Prince”.

Keywords: art, isolation, love.


The Establishment of Georgian-American Diplomatic Relations

The paper discusses the process of the dissolution of the USSR, the Georgian-American political process before the establishment of diplomatic relations, the recognition of Georgia’s independence, the U.S. State Secretary’s visit in Tbilisi and the opening of the first American embassy in South Caucasus.

Keywords: Georgia, Gamsakhurdia, Shevardnadze, the USSR, the U.S.


The Golden Beads in Pre-Antique Colchis

The paper deals with the study of beads (one category of objects of Colchian goldsmithery of the pre-Antique period), their finding, typological classification and determination of their cultural belongingness via parallels and technological characteristics.



The Issue of the Determination of the Feminine Sexuality in the Oeuvres of Turkish Women-Authors (Pınar Kür and Duygu Asena)

The paper “The Issue of the Determination of the Feminine Sexuality in the Oeuvres of Turkish Women-Authors (Pınar Kür and Duygu Asena)” discusses one of the important questions of the feminist criticism considering a woman’s body and sexuality. The issue is studied on the example of the oeuvres of Turkish women-authors Pınar Kür and Duygu Asena. During the analysis, the attention is paid to the strategies that determine the feminine sexuality.

Keywords: feminine sexuality, feminist criticism, Turkish literature, women-authors.


The Late Antique Period Grave from Gudabertka

The paper deals with the Late Antique period grave discovered near Gori, on the archaeological site named Gudabertka. The grave was found in the 70s of the 20th century. It presented various grave materials as well as the ritual object - the pottery figure of the deer. The grave inventory has not been studied by scientists yet. It enters the scientific space for the first time.

Keywords: cult, Eastern Georgia, figure of a deer, Late Antique period, ritual.


The Local Peculiarities of the Development of the Kura-Araxis Culture on the Example of Sakdrisi

The paper briefly describes the history of the development of metallurgy in Georgia, the social change based on the metal production in the Kura-Araxis culture, enhancement of trade relationships and the discovery of one of the most important metallurgical details - an orifice pipe – in Sakdrisi mine, as well as its parallels in South Caucasus, Anatolia and the Alps.

Keywords: archeology, metallurgy, mining, Sakdrisi, the Kura-Araxis culture.


The Notes about Besarion Orbelishvili Presented in the Sources

The 18th century was the period of a political diversity and dramatism. The ideology of a country is a basis of a state. The ideology must rely of the originality as well as on the traditional and cultural values of the nation. The ideology is created by culture, education and science. For this reason, Georgian literary works did not stop even during hard times. This fact is proved by the existence of Gareja Literary School (the 18th century). One of its prominent figures was Besarion Orbelishvili.

Keywords: customer, manuscript, prelate, rewriter.


The Role of Tourism in the Management of Cultural Heritage Sites

The article explores the positive and negative impacts of tourism on the management of cultural heritage sites. It aims to raise the issues of a sustainable tourism development and a visitor management at the cultural heritage sites in Georgia that require an urgent attention.

Keywords: cultural heritage sites management, cultural tourism, UNESCO World Heritage List, visitor management.


The Symbolic-Allegorical Interpretation of Vazha-Pshavela's Fairy Tale - 'The Mill'

A certain part of Vazha-Pshavela's prose has not been thoroughly studied. One of his works is the fairy tale “The Mill”, which has interesting attitudes towards Christianity and different aspects of the writer’s oeuvre. The paper presents the attempt of the interpretation of this fairy tale.

Keywords: allegory, fairy tale “The Mill”, symbol, "The Snake-Eater", Vazha-Pshavela.


Fire Priests and Magi in Iberia

The article is dealing with the way the cult of Ahura Mazda penetrated into Iberia as early as the Achaemenid period. It is noteworthy that both Iberia and Colchis appear to fall within the political sphere of influence of the Achaemenid Empire. The research has been carried out on the basis of scarce and lapidary though interesting accounts attested in written sources as well as archaeological and ethnographic data, which represents a novelty aiming to find out whether or not any unknown form of fire worship or cult distinct from Zoroastrianism existed here prior to the Achaemenid period.

Keywords: Zoroastrianism, Avesta, Iberia, a fire temple, the Achaemenid Empire, Armazi.


Issues of Co-existence of Ethnic Groups in Georgian Publicistic Works Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

The article examines the issues of co-existence of various ethnic minorities in the state of Georgia as reflected in certain Georgian publicistic works written in 1879-1928, considering them in historical perspective as well as in terms of state significance and political objectives that contribute to tolerant environment for ethnic minorities in the country.

Keywords: Culture, multiethnicity, integration, publicism


On an Unknown Fact concerning the Relationship between Nader Shah and Georgian Royalty according to ‘Alam Ara-ye Naderi by Iranian Historian Mohammad Kazem

Mohammad Kazem is a historian contemporary with Nader Shah Afshar (18th c.). Numerous accounts on Iranian-Georgian relations have been preserved in his prose chronicles entitled ‘Alam Ara-ye Naderi (“The World-Illuminating History of Nadir”). The proposed article presents our point of view concerning Mohammad Kazem’s account depicting the relationship between Nader Shah and one of the daughters of Teimuraz II.

Keywords: Nader Shah Afshar, Teimuraz II, a daughter of Teimuraz II, Mohammad Kazem


Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar on the Georgian Stage

Sturua’s interpretation of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar is governed by a postmodernist artistic and conceptual understanding. The analysis results in the presentation of topics and problems that represent the main idea of Shakespeare’s play and Sturua’s theatre production. In the performance, Shakespeare’s metaphor “All the world’s a stage” expresses not only the contemporary reality but also the biblical, fictitious and theatrical reality depicted by means of intertextuality and the artistic technique of metatheatre.

Keywords: Shakespeare, postmodernism, Julius Caesar, Robert Sturua, Rustaveli Theatre


Social Realistic Dimension of Hero of Labor and Soviet Deconstruction of Elitism

The article deals with a role of literature, and particularly, socialist realism in shaping the new Soviet elite which was based on the award of the title “Hero of Socialist Labor”. Socialist realism has developed into a particular dimension for new heroes whose field of activity encompassed factories, plants, fields and meadows. The synchronism of Soviet repressions with the introduction of new title as well as the establishment of socialist realism, a unified artistic method has become a cornerstone for Soviet identities and a basis for deconstruction of a concept of elitism.

Keywords: Hero of Socialist Labor, Soviet elite, Rustavi metallurgical plant, literary character, post-Soviet deconstruction


State Education Policy as a Mechanism for Constructing National Identity in Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921)

This article presents a brief overview of the education policy developed in the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1918-1921. The study intends to determine the importance of the education policy in terms of the construction of the country’s national identity. 

Keywords: Nationalism, national identity, the first Republic, education, national minorities


Structural Analysis of Fragmentary Manuscripts (The Case of Six Fragments Preserved in Fragmentary MSS Fund of Korneli Kekelidze Georgian National Centre of Manuscripts)

A large number of fragmentary manuscipts has been preserved as part of the Georgian manuscrip heritage, chronologically covering the 5th–18th centuries CE.
The study of the manuscripts requires a complex and multidisciplinary examination. In order to determine to which manuscript a certain fragment belongs, an archeographic description of fragments is essential. This includes the study of manuscript materials, i.e the color of the ink applied, the number of lines per page, the type of script used in the text, the caligraphy of text, the size and form of graphemes, the distance between letters as well as lines; assumed dating of the parchment, the degree of its treatment and damage, types of damage suffered by the fragment, and the methods of rulling employed.
Structural examination of manuscripts is important and essential for the purposes of their consevation and restoration, as well as their treatment and preservation, providing a basis for a thorough study of a manuscript from a wider perspective.
The article surveys six (6) individual units on parchment in their entirety, five of which appear to be fragments of the Four Gospels, while the sixth one represents the fragment of the Psalms (N Fr.194, Fr.224, Fr.231, Fr.217, Fr.221, Fr.294) listed in the catalogue of fragmentary manuscripts of the Korneli Kekelidze Georgian National Centre of Manuscripts.

Keywords: manuscript, fragment, parchment, structure


Trauma and Triumph in Literary Texts: Post-Independence Georgia

The 20th century can be defined as a “century of traumas”. The study of collective trauma has developed into one of the major areas of cultural studies. Experience in exploring occurrences of traumatic events across countries has expanded. Georgian reality remains understudied in the light of trauma theories. This article aims to demonstrate to what extent the traumatic events of 1990s have been manifested, analyzed, understood and interpreted in post-independence literature. 

Keywords: Georgia, cultural trauma, transformation, literature


Shakespeare in Georgian Fine Arts

DOI:  10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-2

The work "Shakespeare in Georgian Fine Arts" aims to analyze the works of Georgian artists based on Shakespeare's plays, on the basis of which we suggest that Georgian artists have created a number of masterpieces, which has earned Georgian “Shakespeareana” (everything connected with Shakespeare's creative work) a worthy place among world art.


Keywords: scenographic Shakespeare, theatrical painting, Soliko Virsaladze, Robert Sturua,


The composition of Amnos in the murals of the north-west chapel of the main church of Gelati Monastery

DOI:  10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-1

The present article discusses the composition of Amnos and its iconographic features in the northwest chapel of the main church of Gelati Monastery created during the prelateship of Zakaria Kvariani (1637-1660). 

Keywords: Amnos, St Peter of Alexandria, St. Nicholas, the northwestern chapel of Gelati, Zakaria Kvariani


Toponym Hayzān/Khayzān and One Related Reference to it by Ibn Rustah for the History of Hereti



The toponym Hayzān/Khayzān is quite common in medieval Arabic historical or geograph-ical literature. However, references to this name are scarce and fragmentary. They mainly refer to the toponym itself and issue indirectly related to it. Consequently, this factor com-plicates the matter of toponym identification. The objective of this paper is to gather possi-ble versions and variants of the location of the toponym Hayzān/Khayzān, based on various references or existing studies. Among them are new variant(s) that may be identified as the toponym. The paper also discusses one specific account of Ibn Rustah concerning the intro-duction of kingship among the princes of Hereti, and this notice represents a novelty as it has not hitherto been the object of proper observation.


Keywords: Hayzān/Khayzān, Ibn Rustah, Hereti, Middle Ages, Arabic sources


Triangular Pendants from Pre-Classical Colchis

DOI:  10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-3


The present paper discusses one of the most important items characteristic of the Pre-Classical period Colchian goldsmithing - the triangular-shaped pendants. They reflect the way of adapting the common epoch-making fashion and trends to the local tastes and traditions, which is also felt well by other jewelers of this period.

The paper defines their distribution area, chronology and typology. By current data, such pendants, according to  stylistic-technological analysis, are the works of local goldsmiths of Pre-Classical period Colchis and the finds of several specimens at archaeological sites of later periods, in our opinion, don`t correspond to the date when the pendants were made.


Keywords: Goldsmithing, Colchis, Pendants, Pre-Classical


What could be the future of the past: capturing a potential value of Gremi historical landscape


The research aims to reassess the values and cultural significance associated with Gremi, the capital of the vanished Kingdom of Kakheti, through deconstructing its historical past. In doing so, it aims to understand to what extent can Gremi, as a historical landscape, meet the criteria for the UNESCO Silk Roads Transnational Serial World Heritage nomination together with the sites of neighbouring countries as opposed to nominating some of its architectural buildings as a single property.

Keywords: Gremi historical landscape, World Heritage, Silk Roads transnational nomination


Compound Warfare ― Abkhazia 1992-1993

DOI:  10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-2


In this article, the war in Abkhazia is discussed according to the so-called “Compound War-fare” theory known in the history of military art. The factors that caused the defeat of the Georgian armed forces in the mentioned conflict are also analyzed.

Keywords: Abkhazian War, Compound Warfare, Hybrid Warfare, History of Military Art


Georgia's Information Field During the Beginning of the Second Russian War Against Ukraine

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-4


The article focuses on how Russia's second unprovoked war against Ukraine was reflected in Georgia's information space during the information conflict (2022, February 24). Specifically, the strategies, processes, and information channels employed by Russia during the Ukraine War in Georgia to wage an information war in the country are analysed. The critical tasks to halt Russian information warfare are also discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Information War, Russia's War Against Ukraine, Information Security, Georgia's Information Field, Propaganda and Information-sabotage Operations


Georgian Cuisine – “Invented Tradition”

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-3


The goal of Esma Kunchulia’s work  “Georgian Cuisine  Invented Tradition” is to understand the essence of national cuisine and discuss it according to cultural studies, memory studies and modernist theories of nationalism. This work is the first attempt to analyze the national cuisine in the framework of different theories.

According to the author of the article, national cuisine, as one of the symbols of the nation and a marker of national identity was created in the era of the formation of nations and became a part of the “great narrative” of the nation. The author considers the collection of dishes as an “invented tradition” by the “imagined community” and suggests that the “national cuisine” with the form and emotion it has today did not exist before the “formation” of nations.

The research shows that, for a modern person, national cuisine is a constituent part of the nation’s identification system, the symbols and the codes. Being a national symbol, the national cuisine carries an emotional load characteristic of the national culture for a member of the nation and treating it “wrongly” is as “dangerous” as mistreating other symbols.

Esma Kunchulia's work will be interesting for researchers of collective identity and cultural memory of the nation.

Keywords: Georgia, Georgian Culture, Georgian Cuisine, National Cuisine, Identity, Collective Identity, Self-determination, Nationalism, Nation Building, Invented Tradition, Imagined Communities, Places of Memory, Collective Memory


Azerbaijani Press in Tbilisi /XIX Century/

The presented article analyzes the history of Azerbaijanian periodical press, produced in Tbilisi – in the administrative and cultural center of the South Caucasus. On the basis of the archival sources, it is illustrated that Azerbaijani periodical editions have been under the strict control of the Caucasus Censorship Committee.

Keywords: Azerbaijani press, Tbilisi, censorship, Russian imperia, South Caucasus


Dukes of Burgundy – the Protagonists of the 15th Century Crusade and the Georgian Kings’ and Rulers’ Respective Stance

Based on the comparison of European sources and local materials, the article aims, on the one hand, to highlight the political and socio-economic factors related to the position-involvement of the Georgian rulers in one of the most problematic international issue - stopping the Ottomans, to explain why we consider the Duchy of Burgundy be considered the most consistent out of the Western European states to the idea of the crusade;  also, on the basis of the reports of trade agents, travelers, representatives of religious missions and spies, explore the situation in the Black Sea region and Georgia of that period – insight into the development prospects and perceptions and apart from the Roman Curia, who and why could be an ally and supporter of the Georgians among the political leaders in the West.

Keywords: eastward travelers and spies, crusader plans, anti-Ottoman alliances


Literary Images of the City in Lia Sturua's Poetry

Lia Sturua is one of the most prominent poets of the twentieth century. At all stages of her work, interest in urban space is evident; In this article, we will analyze the works by Lia Sturua and explore the forms and images the urban space is presented by, the issues related to this pro-cess and the features that distinguish them.

Keywords: urban space, Lia Sturua, literary images


Sound Archive of the Humboldt University of Berlin and its Georgian-language Audio Recordings (1915–1918)

The presented research is dedicated to the audio recordings of the Georgian prisoners, who were the participants of the First World War; the recordings were performed in 1915-1918 in the camps operating on the territory of Germany and are collected in the archives of Humboldt-Forum.  In the presented publication we consider the essence and the history of the audio archive, the fact of making the camps as a scholarly-research laboratory, the technology of the performing of the audiograms, the methods of their transfer to a sheet of paper, their cataloging and archiving. The Mannheim Georgian corpus stands in the center of the publication; We have developed our own model of the research in order to describe the Mannheim corpus in the cultural, historical and linguistic scopes of view.

Keywords: audio recordings, Humboldt-forum, German camps, Mannheim corpus, analysis of the audiograms


Cultural and Trade Relations in Central Transcaucasia

The settlement and necropolis of Grakliani Hill are located in Georgia, on the territory of the village Igoeti and Samtavisi. The monuments found there belong to different periods: 1.Paleolith; 2.Eneolite; 3.Early Bronze Age; 4.Late Bronze-Early Iron Age; 5.Age of Developed Iron (8-7 centuries BC; 6. 6th century BC; 7.5th-4th centuries BC; 8. 4th-3rd centuries BC; 9. 3rd-2nd centuries; 10. 2nd - 1st  centuries BC.

Keywords: settlement, necropolis, altars, Mesopotamian, Achaemenid type.


Adyghe Variants of the Amirani Epic

The epic of "Amirani" known from the name of the enchained giant is presented in the Adyghe folklore only as an episode. Amongst similar legends rendered by the North Caucasian people the closest in plot structure are Kabardian variants which are comparatively more extensive. In the Adyghe folklore from the "Amiraniani" only the motif of enchaining to the rock is preserved. The name of the hero, the reason for punishment and many other important episodes are unknown.

Keywords: Amirani, epic, Adyghe, Elbrus, giant.


Codicotextual Analysis of the Gospel Manuscript (Ath.62) from Oshki on the example of Matthew’s Gospel

The paper presents codicological and textual analysis of the text of Matthew's Gospel from the Four Gospels of the 11th-century manuscript (Ath.62) on the basis of which its relation to the other known editions of the Georgian translation of the Gospels has been established.

Keywords: Gospel, Oshki, Giorgi Mtatsmindeli, manuscript.


On Megrelian-Georgian Interferences

This paper aims to show several aspects of linguistic contacts on the example of Kartvelian languages. Megrelian-Georgian interferences are presented on the level of morpho-syntax and prosody. The question has been regarded within the frames of intra-ethnic communication and is based on linguistic observations of a bilingual author.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, bilingualism, diglossia.


Beginning of the Migration of Mountaineers in the Western Georgia at the turn of the millennia

In this paper we consider significant accounts given by Strabo and other historians who are either unfamiliar or in any case, do not mention the Abkhazian-Adigeian tribes on the territory of the western Georgia and the data by those historians (Plinius and Arrian) who mention Abkhazian-Adigeian tribes on the territory of the western Georgia for the first time. We also discuss the reasons for migration of different highland tribes - the Abasgi, the Apsioloi, the Lazi, the Sani.

Keywords: Colchis, Heniochi, Apshiloi, Kerketes, Abkhazians.