Discourse of Socialist Realism and Some Peculiarities of Georgian Soviet Literature

 It is impossible to create a complete history of Georgian literature without in-depth, free of prejudice and unbiased study of Georgian Soviet literature from the vantage point of today. This paper deals with some peculiarities of Georgian literature of socialist realism: its attitude to life, traditions and "socialist realist happy ending".

Keywords: socialist realism, literature, ideology, happy ending.


Poetics of Grigol Robakidze’s Novels

This paper is the first attempt to define the poetics of Grigol Robakidze. The viewpoint that Robakidze's novels have established themselves as a new type of modernist novel, namely ontological novel has been discussed.

Keywords: poetics, ontological novel, mythos, tropology.


Structural and Compositional Organization of Plato’s Sophist

This paper deals with the issues of structural and compositional organization of Plato's Sophist. The method of structural analysis has been tried out in the study of this dialogue and its separate episodes. The obtained structures and their characteristics are presened.

Keywords: Plato, Sophist, structure, composition, dialogues.


For the Typology of Galaktion’s Symbolist and Novalis’ Romantic Poetry

The given paper discusses the major tropologic concepts of Galaktion's and Novalis' (the most prominent representative of German Romanticism) poetry. Their conceptual closeness, as well as their peculiarities and differences are singled out and revealed.

Keywords: Galaktion, Novalis, symbol, tropology, typology


Reality and Literary Fiction (Otar Chkheidze’s “Artistic Revolution”)

The given paper deals with the representation of civil and ethnic conflicts of post-Soviet Georgia in the literary texts (on the example of Otar Chkheidze's "Artistic Revolution"). It presents the author's relation to the parties, which take part in the civil confrontation and studies the problem of relationship between the literary fiction and reality.


Keywords: :“Artistic revolution”, literary fiction, post-Soviet Georgia, reality, Zviad Gamsakhurdia


Aristotle on Homeric Innovation and Book 9 of the “Iliad”: Oral and Written Stages of Enlargement

The present paper discusses Aristotle's "Poetics" in the light of one significant aspect of the Homeric innovation. Taking into account the given source and modern Homeric conceptions, the author of the paper classifies  the distinguishing criteria of the oral and written stages, which supposedly existed within the perennial process of the formation of the "Iliad". By way of illustration of the above-mentioned Book 9 of the "Iliad" is analyzed.

Keywords: Aristotle’s “Poetics”, Homer, Martin Mueller, oral and written stages of enlargement of the “Iliad”, enlargement of Book 9 of the “Iliad” by means of dialogic parts of the text


Perfidy as a Strategy in Jorge Luis Borges’ “A Universal History of Infamy”

The given paper deals with "A universal history of infamy" - one of the notable and early works of the Argentine writer and thinker Jorge Luis Borges. The main emphasis is put on the characters of the work and author's methods of depicting their personalities.

Keywords: Borges, perfidy, the literature of the Latin America


For the interpretation of Davit Guramishvili’s Prayer and Supplicate for Trinity

The article deals with the two verses of Davit Guramishvili ("Prayer, when Davit felt hungry during imprisonment and asked God for bread" and "The Supplication to Trinity: Asking to show the road to Davit") and their main point and essence, whose source is the Lord's Prayer "Our Father." By these verses the Christian World outline of the poet and his artistic abilities are fully shown.


Keywords: Prayer, “Our Father”, Liturgical consciousness, the poet’s life on foreign land, the aspiration to God


Modernist Lyrical Discourse and ‘Blue Horses’ by Galaktion Tabidze

The present paper aims to interpret the lyrical poem ‘Blue Horses' by Galaktion Tabidze in the context of modernist lyrical discourse. The author believes that by ‘Blue Horses' new modernist lyrical discourse was established in Georgian lyric. The author suggests that the publication year of the poem (1915) can be seen as a date when Georgian modernist lyric emerged.


Keywords: Galaktion Tabidze, ‘Blue Horses’, modernism, symbolism, images


On the issue of women writer’s identity in contemporary Turkish Literature

The article deals with the process of self-identification of women authors in the writing space of modern Turkish Literature. Several opinions of women authors are cited about their attitudes towards the concept "Women Literature". A special attention is drawn at the technique of women hysteria that serves as a strategy of destructing the patriarchal discourse.

Keywords: Women authors, Women stories, Hysteria, “Feminine Literature” and “Masculine Literature”, Excessive mimesis


The “Linguistic crisis” of Hofmannsthal in the context of Fridrich Nietzsche’s linguistic-semiotic vision

The article discusses Hugo von Hofmannsthal and his main work important for it artistic and aesthetic values - The Letter of Lord Chandos - its philosophical and theoretical foundations and its relation to the main provisions of Friedrich Nietzsche's linguistic views.

Keywords: “Linguistic crisis”, Philosophy, Poetry, Fragmentation, De-personalization


America in the 1930s and Aldous Huxley’s After Many a Summer Dies the Swan

The article deals with “After Many a Summer Dies the Swan”, the first of Aldous Huxley’s novels from his American years. It considers America seen by the writer as the best example of archetypal technocracy, which vividly manifests the influence of technological and scientific progress on human values.   

Keywords: Huxley, America, Technological, Death, Eternal


Basil the Great on “outer wisdom” and ethical-moral principles (According to Address to Young Men on the Right Use of Greek Literature)

The article examines the attitude of Basil the Great towards pagan culture, literature. Based on a detailed analysis of the possible sources of the text, inter textual relations of Plato and Plutarch has been detected. The attempt of the Holy Father of Caesarea is to adjust to each other antique and Christian value.

Keywords: “Outer Wisdom”, Basil of Caesarea, Christianity, Plato, Plutarch


“The Murder of Gonzago”, “Hamlet” and “Meta-Hamlet”

The article deals with the metadramatic relationship existing between Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” and the play “The Murder of Gonzago” staged within it. Both plays portray essentially the same reality, thus suggesting that our reality also bears similar essence. Therefore, the article introduces the conventional term “Meta-Hamlet”.

Keywords: Shakespeare, “Hamlet”, “The Murder of Gonzago”, “Meta-Hamlet”, Robert Sturua.


One Aspect of Irish Mythology in James Joyce’s Finnegans Wake

James Joyce’s Novel Finnegans Wake causes much interest even nowadays. It is full of biblical, literary and mythological allusions. The article deals with the image of the main character - Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker, namely his connection with the Irish Mythology and he is shown as the High King of Ireland. 

Keywords: Irish Mythology, Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker, Finnegan, High King of Ireland.


Achilles’ Double ‘Greeting’ – “Iliad” 9.198/204

At 9.198 of the “Iliad”, Achilles greets, perhaps, only three ambassadors, or his friends, in the dual; however, at 9.204 the same greeting is repeated in the plural. In the process of interpretation of the issue several questions arose. In order to answer these questions, there is a need to reevaluate the whole embassy scene, but, again, from the Unitarian standpoint.

Keywords: the “Iliad”, the embassy, plurals with the duals, the changed formula, reconstructing a previous embassy.


Life as a Miracle in Jostein Gaarder’s Works

The article is with “The Orange Girl” a bestseller by a Norwegian writer Jostein Gaarder and deals with intertextuality in Jostein Gaarder’s works. The paper emphasizes the writer's extraordinary ability: lightly and even a little naively and what is more interestingly talk about the most difficult; “tempt” the reader into interaction with themselves as well as the text.

Keywords: Time, World, Retrospection, Regularity


Mutsali by Givi Margvelashvili: The Aesthetics of Post-modernism and the Problem of Deconstruction of the Classical Texts

Mutsali by Givi Margvelashvili one of the most interesting works in European post-modernism is a great example of how Georgian sources (Aluda Ketelauri by Vazha-Pshavela and Merani by Nikoloz Baratashvili) become interwoven in the western discourse. Hence, the deconstruction of the classical literary text, one of the most important characteristics of post-modern aesthetics, becomes apparent in Mutsali.

Keywords: Mutsali by Givi Margvelashvili, Aluda Ketelauri by Vazha-Pshavela, Merani by Nikoloz Baratashvili, Deconstruction of Texts, Postmodernism


The Issue of Interrelation of the Gedankenlyrik and the Philosophical Verse

The article explores the evolution of the concept of Gedankenlyrik and the central aspects of its development. The article analyses its interrelation with philosophical poetry, as well as the main characteristics of philosophical poetry.  

Keywords: Gedankenlyrik, Philosophical Poetry, Elegy, Reflexive Verse, Romanticism, Sentimental Poetry


Autofictional Narrative to rewrite the past Irakli Charkviani's Autonovel in Relation to Autofictional Prose

The given article studies the novel "Tranquil Swim" by Irakli Charkviani in relation to autofictional prose; it explores the forms of narratives used in this book and their functions. Te article also discusses autofiction as a phenomenon and different terms and issues related to it.

Keywords: Autofiction, narrative, autobiography, novel, fiction


The Theme of Encounter between East and West in the 20th Century Arabic Literature (1935-1966)

The present article aims to discuss the theme of encounter between East and West and the issue of cultural confrontation in the works of the outstanding writers of the 20th century (1935-1966) Arabic Literature, such as Taha Hussein, Yahya Haqqi, Suhayl Idris and Tayeb Salih.

Keywords: Arabic Literature, Encounter between East and West


Ezra Pound – Translator of Chinese Poetry

The article discusses translations by Ezra Pound, one of the most prominent figures of the 20th century literature and one of the founders of Modernism. Pound’s viewpoint on translation and his ways of achieving the translator’s intention are discussed at the example of his two verses translated from Chinese. The article mentions radically different opinions and controversy about his translations. 

Keywords: , Image; Imagism; Modernism, Translator’s intention, Vers libre


For the Artistic-Historical context of the Idea of “Union” in the Works of C. Montis

The paper makes an attempt to present the importance and the continuity of the idea of "union” in Costas Montis’ life and artistic work. The peculiarity of the research is the poet’s original style and manner of expression, which was maintained in the translations. At the same time, the attention is paid to the technic of the revival of historical peripeteias and the author's consideration regarding the necessity of reflection in the literature.

Keywords: Cyprus, freedom, history, revolution, the idea of the “union”


For the Understanding of Aghaza’s Literary Character in Vazha-Pshavela’s poem “Host and Guest”

    Aghaza is one of the outstanding characters of Vazha-Pshavela’s epic poetry. The Georgian literary studies presents opposite ideas regarding her. The paper makes an attempt to conceptualize  Aghaza’s literary character.

Keywords: For the Understanding of Aghaza’s Literary Character in Vazha-Pshavela’s poem “Host and Guest”


Identifying the Structural Symmetry of an Oral ‘Ur-Iliad’ through the Reconstruction of Agamemnon’s Earlier Embassies to Achilles

The article considers various notes and arguments that, in the author's opinion, are necessary for the reconstruction of previous versions (including the earliest one) of Agamemnon's embassy to Achilles which are considered as possible evidence for the identification of oral, the so-called recorded (i.e., fixed in writing), and written suppositional stages of the enlargement of “Iliad” 9; in this context, an attempt is made to determine the structural symmetry of a hypothetical oral ‘Ur-Iliad’.

Keywords: Homer, Agamemnon’s embassy, Oral-recorded-written, ‘Ur-Iliad’, Structural symmetry


Hyperbolization of The Knight in the Panther’s Skin in the Context of Medieval Thought

The proposed article deals with the hyperbolized conduct of characters in Rustaveli’s poem, The Knight in the Panther’s Skin. The discussion will be carried out directly in the context of the historical period, medieval thought and worldview which, we believe, will allow us to draw interesting conclusions. Such an approach to the subject is a novelty in its own way in the Georgian academic literature.

Keywords: Medieval worldview; miracle; The Knight in the Panther’s Skin; Hyperbolization


Imagism and Peculiarities of its Reception in the Georgian Literary World

The present paper looks into a Modernist movement – Imagism – which existed in Western literature for no more than a few years, but made a profound impact on its development.  However, it made no influence, whatsoever, on its contemporary Georgian literary scene. This paper gives an overview of the reception of Imagism in Georgian literary studies and translations.  It discusses the aesthetics of Imagism and peculiarities of its creation.  It briefly describes Georgian translations of the works of one of its founders and inspirers: Ezra Loomis Pound. 

Keywords: Image, Imagism, Verse libre, translation, Modernism


John Donne’s “The Relic”, as an Example of English “Metaphysical” Poetry

The purpose of the following work is to find and analyze characteristics typical to metaphysical wit in John Donne’s love poem “The Relic”. The poem is the perfect example of forced connection of conflicting ideas and images which expresses John Donne’s interest in similarity between physical and “metaphysical” worlds. Problems that John Donne discusses in his poetry are everlasting and are still interesting for the modern reader.

Keywords: metaphysical wit, paradox, voluptuous love, platonic love, John Donne


Plot-Compositional Interrelations in Translated Hagiography of the Genre of Lives

The paper aims to offer an overview oftranslated hagiographic works of the genre of Lives (namely, Lives of St. Antony the Great, St. Ephrem the Syrian, St. Sabbas the Sanctified, and St. John Chrysostom)from the plot-compositional perspective, on the basis of the parallels existing between them, to identify similar ordifferentcompositionalclichéd elements.

Keywords: plot, composition, translatedhagiography, the genre ofLives


The Ideal of “New Youth“ according to David Guramishvili’s Davitiani

The paper is dealing withthe problem of self-discovery in David Guramishvili’s Davitiani.According to the literarywork, youth is perceived as the state of being young, on the one hand, and as a symbol of spiritual rejuvenation of an individual, on the other. David Guramishvili who is willing toembark on his journey of self-discovery seeks to win a reputation for himself for generations to come.In accordance with the biblical instruction,the poet himself aspires towardsthe spiritual rejuvenation in order to have a deep insight into divine truth.

Keywords: Self-awareness,spiritual rejuvenation; youth; primal cause / the source


Organizing Ideological Texts in Soviet Literature for Children

DOI:  10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-7


This article discusses the types of organization of ideological texts in Soviet children's literature as a method of exerting influence. Three types of text organization are singled out based on specific literary examples. The method of narrative analysis and structuralism are employed as a theoretical framework for this research.

Keywords: ideology; Soviet ideology; children's literature


The Dualistic Nature of the Main Characters in Mario Vargas Llosa's novel “The City and the Dogs”


DOI:  10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-9

The work aims to identify and analyze the dualistic nature and duality of the main characters of Mario Vargas Llosa's novel “The City and the Dogs". Living in two opposing worlds - the school and the city - determines the dualistic nature of the characters and forces them to make a choice. In a dictatorial regime, the struggle for moral victory and the choice between good and evil are eternal problems and a topical issue for the reader.


Keywords: “The City and the Dogs”, parallel worlds, dualistic nature, choice


The Issue of the Interrelationship between Abu Qurrah and Theodore of Edessa Mentioned in the Old Georgian Translated Hagiographic Writings

DOI:  10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-8


The article discusses the text preserved in Georgian written sources and the issue of one of the characters in “Martyrdom of St. Michael”, Theodore Abu Qurrah. Theodore Abu Qurrah himself is one of the main characters in this work, the narrator of Michael's story and not the author. In parallel with “Martyrdom of St. Michael”, another text is preserved in Georgian sources, “The Life of Theodore of Edessa”, which was probably translated from Greek by Ephrem Mtsire. In it, as an integral part of the work, the so-called “Abu Qurrah” is also mentioned, however, with significant changes - the introductory part is omitted, in which Theodore Abu Qurrah is mentioned as the narrator of Michael's story, and Michael himself is quoted as a relative of Theodore of Edessa, Bishop of Edessa.

We are interested in the relationship between Theodore Abu Qurrah and Theodore of Edessa. We will try to find out what these two figures have in common, whether they were identified with each other and what caused this fact? Was Theodore Abu Qurrah just a literary alter ego, or was he a real person? Why was Theodore Abu Qurrah, the narrator of Michael's story, replaced by Theodore of Edessa in his life? Is it due to the motive of Basil of Emesa - the author of “The Life of Theodore of Edessa”- to further glorify the merits of his uncle, by connecting him with such a great figure as St. Michael or are we dealing with a misunderstanding? Should we consider that in the original version of “Martyrdom of St. Michael” instead of Theodore Abu Qurrah, the story of Michael was told to the sanctuary monks by Theodore of Edessa, who was later replaced by Theodore Abu Qurrah due to a mistake made by a particular person? In addition, we will discuss the relationship between John of Damascus and Theodore Abu Qurrah and present our hypothesis on how the tradition of the disciple-teaching of Theodore Abu Qurrah and John of Damascus should have been established on the basis of the union of John of Damascus and Theodore of Edessa.

Keywords: Theodore, Michael, Martyr, Edessa, Haran


The Relationship between Fantasy Genre and Religion (Based on the works of Rowling, Martin and Tolkien)

DOI: 10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-6

This article is part of a doctoral dissertation. It discusses the works by J. Rowling, J.R.R. Martin, and J.R.R. Tolkien in a religious context. The three works of the fantasy genre (Harry Potter, The Song of Ice and Fire, The Lord of the Rings) are shown from the point of view of religion, and the role that religion plays in the fictional world of each of the authors listed.

Keywords: Martin, Religion, Rowling, Tolkien, Fantasy


“Joyful Summer” and the Idea of Divine Marriage

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-6

The poem “Joyful Summer” presented in the final part of “Davitiani” preaches about the church wedding as a logical result of  love. It is also considered a hymn of divine devotion. The main idea of the poem ― marriage ― is perceived as an allegory of the return of a person cleansed from sins to the kingdom of God through love. From this point of view, it is noteworthy to understand the symbols of the mentioned text and their relationship with the main problem, self-awareness, raised in “Davitiani”.

Keywords: Self-awareness, Marriage, Robe, Summer


A Commentary to W. B. Yeats’ Poem "Meditations in Times of Civil War"

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-11


The article discusses W. B. Yeats's Meditations in Times of Civil War from The Tower, a major collection of W. B. Yeats’s late poems. Albeit not the most important or well-known, the poem extends the symbols and themes of The Tower and lends depth to its imagery. The article gives a detailed insight of the structure, themes, and images of this lengthy, seven-part poem.

Keywords: Yeats, Civil War, Tower


A Modernist Interpretation of Tiresias in Djuna Barnes' Nightwood

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-10


The presented article considers the modernist Interpretation of the mythological hero — Tiresias in Djuna Barnes' novel "Nightwood". The novel illustrates the  symbolic and associative sugestiveness of the prophet living in Paris in the 1920s.

Keywords: Modernism, Hermaphrodite, Tiresias, Time


Actualization of Mythos in James Joyce’s Ulysses: Leopold Bloom’s Metamorphoses

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-12


The continual sequence of transformations described in Ulysses turns the novel into James Joyce’s Metamorphoses. By virtue of the series of metamorphoses, the reading of Ulysses bears the function of a ritual: an actual moment of the time is to be replaced with the mythical eternity.

Keywords: Mythos, Metempsychosis, Metamorphoses


Artistic Depiction of the Historical Processes of the 18th-19th Centuries in Vazha-Pshavela’s Prose ("Erem-Serem-Suremiani" / "My journey to Erem-Serem-Suremianeti")

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-7


In his work "Erem-Serem-Suremiani" / "My journey to Erem-Serem-Suremianeti" Vazha-Pshavela describes  the national-social aspects of the historical-political changes that took place in the 18th-19th cc. Georgia. In "Erem-Serem-Suremiani" the author allegorically pictures  weakening Georgia, the annexation of Georgia by Tsarist Russia and the social-cultural results caused by these events.

Keywords: The Prose of the 19th c. Georgia, The Allegory in Vazha-Pshavela Prose, National-social Aspects in Vazha-Pshavela Novels, The Annexation of Georgia by Tsarist Russia


Happy Ending as a Model of the World Perception (from Georgian Folk Tales to Social Realism)

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-9


A Happy Ending is widely used nowadays as one of the diverse ways a literary work may end. It is a specific model of the writer's attitude to life and the world determined by many artistic, aesthetic and socio-political factors. There are many examples of a Happy Ending in Georgian literature of different periods (folk creativity, religious and secular writing).

The Happy Ending has proved to be a very productive model for the ideological purposes of Socialist Realism. Therefore, Socialist Realism used this model intensively to put fiction even more actively at the service of building a socialist society and the Communist Party.

Keywords: Happy Ending, Folk Tales, Hagiography


The Criticism of the Soviet Ideology in the Novel ― "Der Kantakt"

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-8



One of the meta-fictional works by the German-language Georgian migrant author (Der Kantakt, 2009).  The novel consists of three thematic levels, two of which are meta-fictional,   and one of them is of an essay type.

It is devoted to the discussion and criticism of important issues, such as the Soviet Union and its violent system, the Communist ideology, repressions, etc. that come under the spotlight in this article.

Keywords: Margwelashvili, "Kantakt", Soviet Union, "Captain Vakush", Ideology, Meta-novel


Time in the Work of Joseph Conrad

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-5


This article examines the problem of time according to five different works of Joseph Conrad. The research is based on the concepts of the philosopher Henri Bergson and the religious scholar Mircea Eliade, and accordingly, distinguishes two concepts of time in Conrad's work, psychological and mythological time.

Keywords: Conrad, Bergson, Eliade, Time, Mythos


Climate Symbolism in T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land [1]

As the year 2022 marks the 100th anniversary since the publication of T.S. Eliot's “The Waste Land”, numerous international academic events have been dedicated to the poem and its publication history. The article explores Eliot's poem in the scope of its modern reinterpretation from an ecocritical lens. The symbolic poetics related to the climate references in the text is analyzed from a novel perspective and its symbolism is emphasised as one of the structural elements of the modernist poetry.

Keywords: T.S. Eliot, modernism, The Waste Land, ecocriticism


Deer Mythologeme and Myth-making in Vazha-Pshavela's Prose

In the works by Vazha-Pshavela, the mythology and symbolism of the deer signifi-cantly determines the writer's literary paradigm, because the author frequently uses it and in different functions.

Keywords: deer mythologeme, myth-making, Vazha-Pshavela's prose


Images of Orthodox Mothers according to the Shatberdian and Chelishian Editions of the life of St. Nino

This work discusses the contribution of the orthodox mothers to the process of Christianization of Kartli. The issue is studied with the consideration of the Shatberdian-Chelishian editions of “The Conversion of Kartli.”  The detailed analysis of the women’s images, their words and contributions presented in the work make it clear that St. Nino managed to fulfill her mission and convert Kartli with the help of dedicated Mothers.

Keywords: “Conversion of Kartli”, St. Nino, orthodox mothers


Nikoloz Baratashvili’s Less Studied Official Letters

The letters of Nikoloz Baratashvili provide the reliable material to contribute to the private life, works and worldview of the writer.  These letters are divided into official letters written to friends and relatives regarding private and work responsibilities. Only the letters of the personal content have been the objects of the researchers’ observations until now. However, as it has been revealed, the official letters as well unmask the numerous interesting details, that have been unknown until nowadays.

Keywords: Nikoloz Baratashvili, official letters, epistle


Oğuz Atay’s s Novel “The Disconnected” from Habitus Perspective

In the presented article  a  novel by  20th century distinguishingly interesting Turkish writer - Oğuz Atay - “The Disconnected” is considered in the context of the concept of the habitus developed by the French sociologist -  Pierre Bourdieu. The aim of the article is to answer the following questions on the basis of observing the protagonists of the novel:

a) What kind of fields and habitus does the reader find in the novel?

b) Does the habitus, formed under the influence of the objective social environment and supported by preconceived schemes, change as a result of the new schemes included in it by the individual?

Keywords: Turkish literature, Oğuz Atay’s s novel “The Disconnected”, Pierre Bourdieu, the conception of the habitus


Tear in XII-XIII Centuries’ Georgian Secular Writing

In the presented work the symbolic meaning of the tear is studied as well as the meaning and specific nature of using the lexical units related to the tear according to original Georgian secular monuments of XII-XIII centuries. The presented research is a kind of continuation of the work prepared by us in the framework of the Ph.D. seminar, that was dedicated to the same issue according to the original Georgian secular monuments of V-XI centuries.

Keywords: tear, original Georgian secular monuments of XII-XIII centuries


Techniques of Magical Realism in Salman Rushdie’s Novel – Midnight’s Children

The article discusses magic-realistic elements in the novel, Midnight’s Children by the English author, Salman Rushdie. It explores how the post-colonialist author uses a magic-realistic technique to address various socio-political issues, highlighting its significance for marginalized and oppressed groups in the context of post-colonialism.

Keywords: Salman Rushdie, post-colonialism, magical realism, Midnight's children


The Mission of Odysseus in the “Iliad”: Has it always Failed?

The main purpose of the article is to outline the likely plot and protagonist(s) of the original, short version of the "Iliad" or "Ur-Iliad" composed orally by Homer; and to reconstruct the possible stages and trace some of the artistic principles of its transformation, again by Homer, into the monumental poem that we have. Therefore, the author takes into account books 9 and 19 of the current "Iliad", as well as various points from the rest of the poem.

Keywords: books 9 and 19 of the “Iliad” by Homer, structural symmetry of the “Ur-Iliad”, protagonist(s) of the "Ur-Iliad", the three stages of the expansion of the “Ur- Iliad”, adaptation through insertions.


The Problem of The Statues

The article discusses one of W. B.Yeats's most complex and controversial poems,  “The Statues”, which is written several months before the poet’s death. The work provides an insight into the structure of the poem, its main theme and mages, as well as conflicting critical ideas and problems of the interpretation.

Keywords: Yeats, Statues, Pythagoras


Traces of Orality in Classical Arabic Maqamat

Maqama is the only genre of classical Arabic prose. It does not have an analogy in the European literature. maqama emerged and developed in an era when oral and written literature coexisted. This combination had a dramatic effect on its shape and structure - the classical maqama compositions incorporate the traces of orality.

Keywords: canonical Arabic prose, oral literature, maqamat as a literary genre


Transformation of Euripides’ Phaedra in British and Georgian Theatres

The article discusses the transformation of Euripides’ Phaedra in ancient, British and Georgian space, based on Euripide’s “Hippolytus”, British playwright Sarah Kane’s play: “Phaedra’s Love”, and famous Georgian choreographer Giorgi Aleksidze’s modern ballet: “Diplipito”.

Keywords: Euripides, Phaedra, Sarah Kane, Aleksidze, transformation


Zoya Pirzad's Characters in Search of Identity

The article discusses the process of searching for a woman's place and purpose according to the works of modern Iranian writer Zoya Pirzad. The focus is on women's legal standing in a patriarchal culture, on their ongoing quest to break down the deeply ingrained obstacles of tradition and create their own identities.

Keywords: women's literature, feminism, Persian literature, Zoya Pirzad, women's rights


The problem of Absurd in Literary Grotesque

"Absurd literature" has put different intonation into contemporary literary grotesque. It is the case when grotesque is merged not with satire but with absurdity. In this paper grotesque is regarded on the example of the 20-th century literature as a special means of artistic conventionality.

Keywords: literature, grotesque, absurd, 20th century


On the Interaction of Dialogue and Monologue

The study of the issues related to dialogue and monologue is one of the topical problems in contemporary literary criticism. Certain peculiarity is created by their interaction and alternation so that the boundaries between them disappear. This paper considers the mentioned question both from theoretical and practical viewpoints.

Keywords: dialogue, monologue, author-narrator, alter-ego.