For the interpretation of Davit Guramishvili’s Prayer and Supplicate for Trinity

Prayer is an expression of faith, and faith is the power that keeps evil away from the human soul. This is the "merge request confirmation" with God [Baramidze, 1992:25]. The spirit which never regrets and prays experiences kindness. Prayers are the regenerative and renovate force for the spirit. It brings virtue, kindness, regeneration and spiritual perfection. In the artistic thoughts of Davit Guramishvili prayer mostly has a symbolic function. This problem has always been of a much interest for scholars. Several works have been dedicated to this issue. The works of Revaz Baramidze and Bela Balkhamishvili are noteworthy [Baramidze, 2005; Balkhamishvili, 2005]. According to Revaz Baramidze: "Davitiani" is an united piece of work, an extended prayer dedicated and showing aspirations to a single, supreme deity and repentance, where real-historical pictures or guidance contained passages are knitted in" [Baramidze 2005:16]. B. Balkhamishvili researched an episode of "The Shepard or a cheerful summer". A prayer of the girl Shepard, where "is the complex of the common and the arisen to replace each other, there is fear and dear, trusting and obeying God and the will to resist" [Balkhamishvili, 2005:171]. In "Davitiani" the line of prayer is given, which has a specific function in the artistic structure of the work. The main features of symbolic thinking, the Biblical images, allusions, reminiscences, enigmas, antinominality, and dualism are fully reflected in "Davitiani" and are the ones determining the artistic phenomenon of the Work.

In the Artistic-aesthetic and ideological-vision world of "Davitiani" special attention should be drawn on the prayer and the supplication placed in the first book: "Prayer, when Davit felt hungry during imprisonment and asked God for bread" and "The Supplication to Trinity: Asking to show the road to Davit", where the poet foremost by engaging the Christian prayer, Lord's prayer, "Our Father", shows his request to God, his sentiments, feelings and spiritual aspirations for his future. Both verses have a postscript "Iambic", and even though they are not written in an iambic perimeter, both of them are fourteen syllable verses. Nevertheless, both verses form a similar impression of hymnography, by its imagery, expressive means and language it looks much alike chants. However, it should be noted, that by their world outlines and verse measurements these verses are akin to folklore, and such kind of measuring syllables are used by Davit Guramishvili in other verses as well. The rhythmic syllables used in the verses give them the intonation of speech. It is noteworthy that these verses were created when the poet freed himself from the capture of the Lezghins, and as he himself admittes they are written by this experience, when he was hungry and asked God for bread.

The structural model of verse should be mentioned, the divine rule of saying "Our Father" in the church are preserved: From "Our Father" prayer text the prayer assigned for the priest to say is singled out, its title is "The Supplication to Trinity: Asking to show the road to Davit", that indicates on both the poet's Liturgical consciousness, and the knowledge of the centuries-old tradition worship. However, it should be noted, that these prayers of "Davitiani" have not been of a special scholarly interest.

In clergical literature the text of the prayer of "Our Father" has been defined many times by different holy fathers, so that it would become more understandable for the parish. In particular, I will use the exegetical works of St. Ioane Okropiri and Theophylact the Bulgarian to justify this issue [St. Ioane Okropiri, 1996: 12-13]. This prayer clearly indicats what the gospel is, its whole essence and purpose. It is a merge of God's will with the inner, divine communion and joy to the world with the knowledge that seeks and obtains eternal good; This prayer gives people the power of God in order to be protected from evil. A. Harnakma while reviewing "Our Father," said that the name, the will and the divine world are the constituent elements of prayer, whose influence extends to the holy and earthly motives [Гарнак, 1907: 46]. Georgian hymnography is familiar case of the transformation of the prayer and becoming a hymns of, namely, when Ioane Minchxi with little alteration - changing some of the words, and adding some, - in fact, created a new song on the themes and motives of "Our Father". The theme of "Our Father" was used to determine different topics and are reflected in the works of Davit Guramishvili and Ilia Chavchavadze ("Prayer"), who brought their thoughts to the hearts of their reader.

The symbolic language of Davit Guramishvili, by which he writes in his verses mentioned above, shows the aspects of biblical imagery. Generally, there have been a number of researches of David Guramishvili's work in this respect. These poems attracted the attention of the fact that both the horizontal-vertical slot times to God in prayer and delivered the key message are conveyed to the listener-reader. Vertically it is fully the text of the prayer of "Our Father" that the priest narrates and which gives the future of the human soul and the finding of heaven by the human may be realized. In the Horizontal section, by the prayer of "Our Father" that is rather important for Christians, and testifies the world of the area, the author by using the deep symbols and imagery shows his attitudes towards God, faith and belief, love. This divine names and ideological beliefs based on biblical personnel redeploy perceived expression. The substance of the vertical-horizontal sections of these verses reveal the author's artistic-visual and aesthetic experience through the use of a combination of the rare case that this function works Replies to Liturgical chant, the temple grounds are creating the perception of symbolic execution. The church where the human stands and takes part in public worship, precisely leads human soul in vertical-horizontal spatial area, the vertical direction - towards God and the horizontal direction - towards all mankind. It is human perfection, completeness verification, revealing his spiritual mission. Davit Guramishvili's world unity, the unity of God, the relationship between Universe and Human, as a creature created by God, in this particular case - to oneself, self-identification which is a difficult road to go on, which can only be achieved as a result of trying to understand God and the universe, and spiritual experience.

Both verses show the spiritual condition of the author, his internal world, a begging towards Go from the side of a human. The full text of the poems is a try to obtain God's mercy, and expectation of getting grace from God. The first verse of God the Father, as all-controlling, merciful and creator, begins by the supplication towards God and the creation of the world by him and, the crown of it - the creation of mankind and finding their place in the the world created by God. The prayer expressed in the first stanza of the verse has a relation with the next to the words and ideas and contents of other stanzas, showing the expression of the author's mood:

 „იყავნ ჩემზედ მოწყალებით, შენ დამიფარეო;

სახელისა შენისათვის აწ მამეხმარეო;

შენი უხვი მოწყალება შორს ნუ წამგვარეო,

მოვედინ მოწყალებითა, ისევ შემყარეო!

სუფევა წარმოავლინე, მადლი მომფინეო;

შენი განჩენილი ვარ და შენ დამარჩინეო!

იყავნ ნება შენი ჩემზე, ჩემო მეუფეო,

ვითარცა პირველ მამათა შენ უწყალობეო" [გურამიშვილი, 1980: 117-118].

Prayer serves as a spiritual cleaner and perfectioner, which is why both of the poems raise the artistic function of the spiritual purification and improvement of the poet. It seems that the poet is experiencing a decrease in the mercy of God and, therefore, in the following stanzas, is a hope for God's mercy, expectation for the re-meeting with God. David Guramishvili through the hypo-dogmatic-paradigmatic imagery shows the complexity, difficulty and tragic events of his life. Being beyond the "Mountains of Avar", being lost towards foreigners he asks God for help, that in this gravest moments God's should have mercy and grace on him, as He was in the case of the Israelis, when He lightened their way during daytime, as well as at night, on the way, gave them Manana from the sky, while they were in the desert, which is symbol of their spiritual and physical survival:

„ცათა შინა ისრაელთა საზდო უწვიმეო,

ეგრეცა ნათლის სვეტითა ღამე ავლინეო,

ქვეყანასა ვარ უცხოსა დაკარგული ტყვეო,

ზედა მთასა ავართასა, აწ მამეშველეო" [გურამიშვილი, 1980: 119].

The awaiting for spiritual deliverance is expressed by the poet in the image of "Light Pillar". Light Pillar, and generally pillar, has an important artictic function in Davit Guramishvili's Poetry. The poet likes to use this metaphor-symbol, by which gives access to God in a vertical line. The coming of Hebrews out of slavery from Egypt and the theme of the Lord's help is actual not only in theological literature, but also in Georgian Literature is wide-spread and conceptual, because in it is oriented on the spiritual salvation man, more generally, mankind. Davit Guramishvili gives his own interpretation, combines it with his world outline and made it into one of the quintessence of his works. The poet, who was in a foreign land and in slavery felt the lack of God's grace and mercy, felt alone; the poet missed the creator of the universe an mankind, merciful, showing His clemency on mankind and asks Him with great sincierty, as He is the savior of mankind, the spiritual saviour. The poet is in the process of search. On this road, hungry and physically exhausted the poet seeks for the light pillar and food, to enlighten his night and to take a snack. By the biblical outline, Light Pillar (Exodus 13, 21-22), showing the road at night (like seeing the flaming blackberry bush that did not burn) is the expression of God's presence. To justify my position I will bring an example from the Book of Exodus: "Then the angel of God, who had been traveling in front of Israel's army, withdrew and went behind them. The pillar of cloud also moved from in front and stood behind them" (Exodus 14,19); During the last watch of the night the Lord looked down from the pillar of fire and cloud at the Egyptian army and threw it into confusion (Exodus 14,24); The Lord said to Moses, "I am going to come to you in a dense cloud, so that the people will hear me speaking with you and will always put their trust in you." Then Moses told theLord what the people had said (Exodus 19,9); As Moses went into the tent, the pillar of cloud would come down and stay at the entrance, while the Lord spoke with Moses (Exodus 33,9). From the biblical characters mentioned in the verse Moses is the most noteworthy, not only because he is mentioned several times but also he is the one oriented on the spiritual saving of man.

The Light Pillar and The Cloud Pillar is considered to be a miracle in hymnography, which is deeply rooted in "Davitiani". Here by the use of hymnographic language, hypo-digmatic-paradigmical structure and imagery is depicted the supplication not of an individual, but the whole mankind, who desperately needs mercy and grace from Lord. Therefore in the stanzas below poet asks God for forgiveness, not only because He is merciful generous, but also because He also has the duty of caring towards mankind, whom He has created. God has given humans everything and He is the one who should give them their daily bread. The symbolic image of Light Pillar is often mentioned in "Davitiani", it can be said that the whole poem is full of it.

Despite the fact, that the verses of Davit Guramishvili follow the words of "Our Father", they still show the individuality and poetical creativity, because the poet created a new reality, new realm, new world outline, prayer of "Our Father" who focuses on the Gospel of Mathew.   Here one "hymn" of Davit Guramishvili should be mentioned, that is closely related to the verses we are dealing with and which begins by the begging towards God the Father and then transits into supplication towards Christ, who should awake and save mankind from sins, as well as show Davit the way and enlighten the road in this tragic moments of his life.

„მამავ, შენი ძეო, ვითხოვ მიბოძეო;

ვიქცევი, ქვესკნეთს ვარდები, მისვეტ-მიბოძეო,

რად გძინავს, აღდეგ, უფალო, აწ განიღვიძეო,

მოდი, გამმართე წელ-გულში, სულ დავიბღუნძეო.

ღმერთო, დავითის მთნეველო, მამაო და ძეო,

ის მტერნი ჩემი მდევნელნი დევნე, განაძეო,

შენ გამირკვიე დავითსა, რაც წინ გზა მიძეო!" [გურამიშვილი, 1980: 128].

Here, in the second part of the poem, the poet asks God for spiritual nutrition, that is realted to the putting on of the "First Garment".

"The first dressing of Davit" is loaded with deep symbolism and content, where the poet asks God to save him from spiritual enslavement and darkness: „ბნელში მგდებარე გამოვედ გარე, ვითა დავღამდი, ისე გავსთენდი! ძე მოგვებოძა, გვესვეტ-გვებოძა, მე დაქცეული მისგან ავშენდი..." [გურამიშვილი, 1980: 151]. This also echoes the motifs of poems, which considers the enlightment of dark.

The imagery of Caen and Abel in the verse is rather interesting, where the sacrifice towards God had a different nature and which resulted in the killing of brother by brother. The poet asks Lord for Help. The poet begs God that He may forget their previous sins and does not remember them. The poet entreats to God that He might hear his supplication as He received the sacrifice of Abel:        

„ჩვენთანა შენი წყალობა ნუ განაქარვეო,

ნადებნი ძველნი სახმილნი ნუ განგვიახლეო,

ჩვენნი მსხვერპლი კაენისა ნუ მიამზგავსეო.

ვითარცა აბელ მართლისა შენ შეიწირეო" [გურამიშვილი, 1980: 118].

The verse by Davit Guramishvili, full of begging is saturate with optimism. This positive attitude can be seen in the second verse as well, which is supplication towards trinity, which aims to show the author the road and forgive his sins. The spiritual relation between Davit Guramishvili and David the Prophet follows both verses, and is reflected by the using of the motives of Psalm 148 and Psalm 150 in the last stanza of Davit Guramishvili's poem:

„აწ დავით იტყვის: დიდება, შენდა, მეუფეო,

მარადის და უკუნითი უკუნისამდეო!

ამინთე მე ბნელს სანთელი და მამინათეო,

დავით მე შენ გევედრები, გზა წარმიმართეო!" [გურამიშვილი, 1980: 119].

The verses of Davit Guramishvili written on the theme of "Our Father" have an artistic function of confession and liturgy and generalization of prayer towards God; it is inspired by the eternal existence of Light. The verses are full of biublical personnel: Abel, Caen, Abraham, Issac, Moses, David. The enslaved poet, who has a Christian world outline, by his liturgical conscious, strives to God, mot only for himself, but for the spiritual salvation of the whole mankind. In Davit's poems faith in the nation and the eternal and undying spirit of entire human soul are deeply expressed, the poet's spirit was not broken even his enslavement and being on a foreign land, his tragedy or personal life, which no doubt intersect with each other and are related to one another. The verses of Davit Guramishvili written on the theme of "Our Father" showed not only the world outline of the poet but his artistic creativity. In this direction Davit had his followers, from which Ilia Chavchadze's verse "The Prayer" should be highlightened that is based on the main principle of Christianity - the forgiveness of enemies.


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Works, Tbilisi
Saint Ioane Okropiri
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