Indicators of Tension in Oral and Written Texts

In an oral text the main source of expression of tension is prosody, and in a written text - verbal means. In both cases the cumulation of tension occurs at the time of conveying the idea (theme) of the text and in segments containing the metaphor, specification, contrast, etc., closely linked with the idea. 

Keywords: Tension field, prosody, text linguistics


Metamorphoses of the Abkhazian Toponymy

The first geographical names on the territory of contemporary Abkhazia formed in accordance with the norms of Abkhazian (Apsua) language appeared from the beginning of the 16th century. The survey of the historical change of toponyms evidences that the statements according to which the Abkhazians (the Apsua) are the only indigenous population on this territory, appear to be incorrect.


Keywords: Abkhazia, change of toponyms, indigenous population


Slang in the Context of Georgian-Russian Linguistic Relations

The paper deals with one of the special spheres of Georgian-Russian linguistic relations - slang words. Russian words are considered in modern Georgian slang and Georgian words in modern Russian slang. The specific features and peculiarities of using these lexical units are shown. 

Keywords: jargon, lexical unit, Georgian language, Russian language, borrowings


Creative Approach during the Process of Color Nomination and Limit of Meanings of Color Terms

The given paper describes and studies psychological-verbal and cultural-social facts of the process of elements denoting colors.  The given study determines the expansion of the word-meaning in the process of nomination.

Keywords: meaning of the word, nomination of colors, polysemy.


The Orthographic Variation in the French Short Textual Discourse

The given paper refers to nonstandard orthographic forms, which are used in a short textual discourse. Their discussion according to the formal and subjective criteria enables us to conclude, that abbreviations are used not only for "defeating" the technical limitations, but they also emerge in the role of lingual identifiers.

Keywords: abbreviation, lingual identification, orthography, short textual discourse


Particles “ar”, “ts”, “ki” in the Georgian Language and their Counterparts in the English Language

The given paper discusses negation expressed by the combination of the particle "არ" ("ar") with the particles"ც" ("ts") and "კი" ("ki"). It shows, that a nominal negation exists in the Georgian language. The particle "ts" provides a scale predication, while "ki" introduces a presupposition.  Moreover, the given paper deals with the lexical means, which facilitate the expression of the same functions in the English language.

Keywords: marking, nominal negation, presupposition, scale predication, verbal negation


Stability and Variation in the Groups of Binary Consonants of the Spanish Language

The given paper discusses the binary consonant complexes on the levels of etymon and derivate. It describes the evolution of consonant groups and the reasons causing their variation.

Keywords: binary consonant complexes, stability, variation


The Georgian and English Phraseologisms Denoting a Person’s Physical and Mental Conditions

The given paper discusses the Georgian and English phraseologisms denoting a person's physical and mental conditions. Phraseologisms are discussed via lingvo-culturological aspects and from the lexico-thematic point of view. Moreover, the similarities and differences of the Georgian and English languages are presented.

Keywords: lingvo-culturology, semantics, the Georgian/English phraseologisms


The Celestial Sphere in the Poetry of N. Gumiliov

N. Gumiliov's poetical manner is characterized by the generalization of the semantic meaning connected to celestial sphere. These words are the holders of both conotational charges (they are loaded positively, as well as negatively). Sometimes a transition from positive to negative register occurs.  

Keywords: N. Gumiliov, Celestial Sphere, Component analysis, Conotational charge


The Comprehensive English-Georgian Dictionary as a Basis for Bilingual European-Georgian Dictionaries

The article deals with practical methods and general prospects for the creation of bilingual, European-Georgian dictionaries basing on the Comprehensive English-Georgian Dictionary. Techniques for the creation of such dictionaries are shown on the example of concrete entries from projected Italian-Georgian, French-Georgian, German-Georgian, and Swedish-Georgian dictionaries.


Keywords: bilingual lexicography, Romance-Georgian and Germanic-Georgian dictionaries


The Gender Dynamics of Youth Interaction (Based on Georgian and German language material)

The article deals will the gender dynamics of discourse concerning Georgian and German Girls and Boys, the cooperative and competentive style of their communication (maritial, full of Intense competition). The essay analyzes the empirical data from audio-visual recordings.

Keywords: Discourse Dynamics, Youth Language, German and Georgian Girls and Boys, Supporting reactions of communication


Analysis of irony in the view of speech acts

The given article is dedicated to the problems of irony interpretation and decoding in the light of speech acts theory based on the examples obtained through research that generally provides the idea of the future study of irony as a joint category of form, meaning and context.  

Keywords: irony, speech act, negative and positive intention, implicit, shared knowledge


Intercultural aspects of Lingo-didactics of contemporary German language and Georgian lingo-cultural reality

The methods of teaching a foreign language changes over the course of time and is oriented on he appropriate reality and technological development. The article deals with the general analysis of intercultural method and singles out its general characteristics; the problem is  seen in the prism of Georgian Reality and gives the prospects of the future. 

Keywords: Teaching Foreign Language, intercultural method, interaction between cultures; the school of lingo-didactics of Giesen.


The place of Word Formation in Georgian and German Linguistics based on the linguistic literature analyses

The Article deals with the Place of Word Formation in Contemporary Linguistics. Presented and analysed are the opinions of local and foreign linguists related to the matter. The article aims to show the terminological differences that were observed in Georgian and foreign linguistic literature.

Keywords: Word Formation, Types of Word Formation, Terminology of Word Formation.


Ethnicity designating Romani loanwords in some European slangs: their origin, meaning and ideology

The slangs of European languages contain words of Romani origin. In this paper I deal with presence of such words in colloquial Spanish and several Central European languages. After a brief overview of the semantic groups where these words can be found I point out the group of ethnic terms. I explain the reasons why these words penetrated into the language and why their meaning could have changed. The case study is based on my field research.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, slang, loanwords from Romani, Spain, Central Europe


The Function of Neologisms in French and Georgian Media Discourse

 The article deals with the integration and adaptation ways of French and Georgian Neologisms. Based on printed and electronic media examples the article shows their characteristics, common features and differences.

Keywords: Georgian Language, French Language, Neologisms, Neology, Anglicism


Towards the Scientific Status of Lexicography (Based on the Analysis of Scientific and Applied Aspects of Lexicography)

The article deals with the problem of the essence or status of lexicography. Discussed therein is the issue of whether lexicography is a science or merely a craft. The article presents arguments in favour of the scientific status of lexicography. Namely, there are examined the fields of human activity which, despite their having applied aspect, are still rightly regarded by the public as sciences.

Keywords: Status of lexicography, craft or science, equivalence.


A Paradigmatic Tropology of the “Pillar of Light” in Nikoloz Gulaberidze’s “The Reading” and “The Chant”

The paper studies a paradigmatic tropology of “the pillar of light” in Nikoloz Gulaberidze’s “The reading” and “The chant”. Its Biblical archetypes are found and the embodiment and essence of “the pillar of light” in the monuments of old Georgian literature are presented. Appropriate conclusions are based on the above mentioned and on the data of the scientific literature.

Keywords: bright, Gulaberidze, paradigm, pillar


For a Semantic Classification of Svan Onomatopoeic Vocabulary

The paper discusses a semantic classification of Svan onomatopoeic vocabulary on the basis of Choluruli speech and traditional dialects (Balszemouri, Balskvemouri, Lashkhuri and Lentekhuri) of the Svan language. The observation of phonosemantic materials reveals that four semantic groups are dominant in Svan, namely: specifically onomatopoeic vocabulary (expression of diverse sounds); the lexis denoting the movement of light and fire; the vocabulary associated with dynamics – movement and action; the vocabulary denoting static situations – appearance, looking, watching, mental states. The classification of these groups is based on Charles Osgood’s method of semantic differentiation. Naturally, like Georgian, in Svan, the above-mentioned groups cannot fully describe the abundant possibilities of the onomatopoeic vocabulary.

Keywords: phonosemantics, onomatopoeia, vocabulary


Distribution of Fricative Phonemes in Abkhaz (According to The Abkhaz National Corpus)

The article deals with the identification of the distributive-statistical pattern of fricative phonemes in the Abkhaz language. The research has been carried out on the basis of the Abkhaz National Corpus. This type of research is a novelty in the study of the issues in Abkhaz phonetics and phonology and it aims at employing the corpus research for a thorough study of the above-mentioned topic.

Keywords: phoneme distribution, corpus research, Abkhaz language, fricatives


The Expression of Gratitude in Social Networks and Virtual Correspondence (On the Material of English and Georgian Languages)

The paper focuses on the verbal and non-verbal means of expressing gratitude in e-mail communication and social networks. The key fields of research for the given paper are pragmatics and socio-linguistics. The theoretical basis embraces the functions of language, speech act theory, politeness theory and cultural studies. The scientific novelty of the given research is that the expression of gratitude has been studied with regard to modern communication channels. Besides, gratitude is viewed as a representation of the expressive and phatic functions of language. Gratitude is studied from the viewpoint of politeness and is considered a Face-saving strategy. The utterances related to gratitude are viewed as speech acts belonging to the groups of “Behabitives“ and “Expressives”. The empirical material is obtained from the virtual data, namely, the most popular social network – Facebook. The analysis embraces letters sent by e-mail, messages in personal chat, timeline posts and comments. Research outcomes might be of interest for linguists interested in pragmatics, sociolinguistics, speech acts, functions of language, speech etiquette and politeness theory. 

Keywords: gratitude, social networks, politeness, speech acts, face-saving strategies.


The linguistic means of expressing ideology and power in political discourse (Using the examples of speeches delivered by Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Giorgi Margvelashvili)

Based on the model described by N. Fairclough, this article deals with the linguistic analysis of official speeches of 2 Georgian presidents, in particular, of the congratulatory speeches delivered by Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Giorgi Margvelashvili, the first and fourth presidents of Georgia at the New Year’s Eve and military tattoos on May 26, speeches made by Gamsakhurdia in exile. (1 hourand15 minutes, 8500 words). While analyzing these data, particular attention is paid to the linguistic markers through which both presidents express and justify their approaches to certain events and ideology, and gain or maintain public support.

Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, ideology, power


Analysis of New Etymologies Related to Several Elamite Verbs

DOI:  10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-10

The article discusses some of the verbs found in Elamite texts. The focus is on the units that bear some typological similarities with the items in the Kartvelian, Dravidian and Indo-European languages. Based on the examples, assumptions are made about the etymology of the root of a verb.

Keywords: Elamite, Dravidian, Kartvelian, Assyriology


Comparative Analysis of Grammatical and Pragmatic Functions of Contrastive Discourse Markers in Georgian and American Talk Show Discourse

DOI: 10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-11

This article aims to study the functions of contrastive discourse markers on the example of American and Georgian talk shows. The methodological framework of the paper is based on B. Fraser’s taxonomy, which examines discourse markers according to their pragmatic and metalinguistic functions. B. Fraser’s grammatical-pragmatic theory studies language relevant in a particular context and is interested in the contextual meaning of the text. The article aims to: (1) determine which contrastive discourse markers are used in a talk show discourse; (2) explain the communicative intentions of the speakers according to the contrastive discourse markers they use; (3) provide contrasting linguistic-pragmatic analysis of English and Georgian discourse markers.

Keywords: Discourse Markers, Contrast Discourse Markers, Talk Show Discourse


Dionysian Definition of the Noun in Ancient Grammar

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-14


One of the fundamental truths of grammar is recognized as the referential definition of a noun, according to which it is a part of speech that expresses an object. There is no alternative to such an understanding of the noun in the European linguistic tradition. Making distinction of   the  universal sign of the noun – subjectivity – defined the similar understanding of this part of speech in the grammars of the  antique and Middle Ages. The first traditional European knowledge about the language appeared in Philosophy, representatives of which were studied the language as an expression of the thought.  Τέχνη Γραμματική by Dionysus is specially distinguished, which theoretically  justifies the logicism in the practice of studying the language.

Keywords: Definition of Noun, Aristotle, Dionysus, Noun, Grammar


Functions and Frequency of Using Code-switching in the Georgian Educational Discourse

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-18


Within the context of teaching English as a foreign language, code-switching – alternating between two or more languages, in a single conversation or situation – is a common practice. This article is the first attempt to investigate the frequency and functions of code-switching by lecturers of general English language courses across the different universities in Tbilisi, Georgia. Building on existing literature [Myers-Scotton, 1993; Ferguson, 2003, etc.], this quantitative study uses survey responses from 92 lecturers and 220 students enrolled in general English courses at the university level in Georgia.  The objective is to reveal (1) the frequency of code-switching used by the EFL (English as a foreign language) course lecturers in the higher education discourse; (2) the functions of using code-switching in the EFL course; (3) and the EFL course lecturers' and students’ attitudes towards lecturers’ code-switching behavior.

Based on the results of the study, code-switching in the classroom can serve several functions such as communicative and intercultural difference. Moreover, students were found to hold far more positive attitudes towards their lecturers switching from English into Georgian during class than the lecturers themselves. Thus, it shows that lecturers believe in a conventional view (using only one language) of teaching a language. Surprisingly, although lecturers have a negative attitude towards using Georgian, 50-60% of participants use Georgian.

Keywords: Code Switching, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), Educational Discourse


Impoliteness and Identity in the Family Discourse Genre

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-15


In the present paper, impoliteness is considered to be a way of expressing and establishing oneself, as well as a method for shaping and maintaining interpersonal relations; Close social relationships are claimed to constitute a threat in the process of constructing one's identity.

Keywords: Identity, Impoliteness, Family


Persuasion and Emotion Framing in Public Speaking: Listener Centered Approach

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-16


The following study discusses emotion as an essential part of communication and defines it as a cognitive process that is schematically represented and activated in the context of persuasion on the base of shared cultural experience between the speaker and the listener.

Keywords: Public Speaking, Persuasion, Emotion Framing


The Personal Name Tariel ― The Artistic Enigma of the “Knight in the Panther’s Skin” [Historical and Philological Research]

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-13

The  article is about naming the main character of “Knight in the Panther’s Skin” – Tariel. The mentioned personal name is connected with the adjective root of Georgian origin derived from the -ier affix. The linguistics, historical and literary data are considered in order to unite thepresented viewpoints in one concept.

Keywords: “Knight in the Panther’s Skin”, The Concept of Rustveli, Personal Name ― Tariel, the Root of the Georgian Origin


The Rhetoric of Aggressive Humor

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-17


The article examines the results of the linguo-pragmatic research that focused on the analysis of the rhetorical possibilities of aggressive humor based on the qualitative and quantitative study of the given discourse in the theoretical framework of pragmatics, socio-pragmatics and semantics, considering certain intercultural aspects. The empirical material of the paper comprises 20 American and 20 Georgian "Stand-up" monologues.

Keywords: Aggressive Humor, Rhetoric, Irony, Sarcasm


The Grammaticalized Element Chans and Related Difficulties in Corpus Linguistics [1]

This paper discusses the process of grammaticalization in the natural language system, presents the main theoretical postulates defining this process, describes the functional-semantic characteristics of the grammaticalized element chans, and discusses the difficulties related to it in corpus linguistics.

Keywords: grammaticalization, corpus linguistics, homonymy, functional-semantic analysis


The Syntactic Function of Peculiar Forms with -დ (-d) Formant and the Issue of Formal Agreement (Based on the K14 Manuscript)

In the ancient Georgian, a noun had a –t suffix plural form in ergative, dative and genitive cases. Sometimes, the –t suffix plural form was also used in instrumental and adverbial cases. At a certain stage of the development of the language, nouns with the suffix -ta (-თა) were formed with the marker -d(a) (-დ(ა)). As a result, we got such forms: გონიერთადა (goniertada), საუნჯეთად (saunjetad), სხეულთად (sχeultad)... The article discusses similar R-ta-d(a) (R-თა-დ(ა)) structure forms. It also attempts to determine the reasons for their formation.[1]

[1] This research № PHDF-21-5365 has been supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (SRNSFG).

Keywords: syntagma, formal agreement, K14 manuscript


Tbilisi Dialect (history and the present)

This paper deals with speech peculiarities of the Georgian capital city (Tbilisi). It is noted that the question of treating the Tbilisi speech in its totality as one Tbilisi dialect or capital's social strata (social dialects) has not yet been thought about. This paper aims at giving special qualification to urban speech.

Keywords: social dialect, strata, low speech, language identity, spoken language.


Problem of Expression of Plural in relation to Complex Sentence of One Type (Which one or which ones?)

This study concerns the depiction of plurality in subordinating conjunction ("which") in Modern Georgian language. For the purpose of bringing the norm in order, it seems reasonable to take into account grammatical form of that member of the sentence which the conjunction refers to and syntactical relation of the same member with basic coordinates - verb-predicates from the viewpoint of the category of number.


Keywords: normative language, role of the conjunction, agreement.


Terms Related to the “Trust” in Georgian, Russian and English Languages (according to “The Civil Code of Georgia”, “The Civil Code of Russian Federation” and “Montana Code”)

The "trust" is generally characterized as a legal institution of Anglo-American law. Nowadays its different modifications are established in the legal systems of Continental Europe. The given paper studies the main terms related to the "trust" on the basis of comparative analysis of Georgian, Russian and American legislations.

Keywords: trust, beneficiary, trustor, trustee, trust property.