Some Religious Symbols in D. H. Lawrence’s Novel “The Plumed Serpent”

D. H. Lawrence is one of the important modern English writers, whose works, like his contemporaries’ ones, are full of intertextual layers and the author’s individual interpretations. His novel “The Plumed Serpent” (published in 1926) is one of these examples.

The article analyzes some religious symbols, like the symbolism of a serpent and a bird, the ritual meaning of the bullfight, a lake and a boatman’s symbolism given in the novel. Meanings of the above-mentioned symbols give additional hints about the journey of the main character, European Kate. The journey itself traces the process of a spiritual rebirth of the character.


religious symbols, The Plumed Serpent, lake, boatman, rebirth


The Establishment of Georgian-American Diplomatic Relations

The paper discusses the process of the dissolution of the USSR, the Georgian-American political process before the establishment of diplomatic relations, the recognition of Georgia’s independence, the U.S. State Secretary’s visit in Tbilisi and the opening of the first American embassy in South Caucasus.

Keywords: Georgia, Gamsakhurdia, Shevardnadze, the USSR, the U.S.


Clay Unguentaria from Urbnisi

The cemetery of the 1st-3rd centuries A.D. excavated in Urbnisi in 1953-1963 is very important for the research of trade and cultural-economical relations of this period. However, most of the found materials are still unstudied.

The paper presents the typological classification of the clay unguentaria and grave complexes found in the cemetery. The unguentaria are interesting, because their shape is quite unusual for this period and has no analogues. Therefore, the date is determined according to the accompanying materials and the development of the shape of the clay vessels.

Keywords: unguentarium, cemetery.


Georgia and the reasons of the failure of post-soviet Russia’s initial integration projects

The article discusses the first integrative projects enacted by Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The disintegrating processes in the post-Soviet space and official Moscow's failed attempts of reintegration are also analyzed, which is important to clearly perceive Georgia's geopolitical reality of that period.

Keywords: CIS, integration, politics, post-Soviet, Russia.


The “Life” of Gregory the Enlightener Presented in Manuscript H404 of the National Centre of Manuscripts

The paper discusses the Georgian text of the “Life” of Gregory the Enlightener presented in Manuscript H404 of the National Centre of Manuscripts. The major novelty of our research is the fact that this text can be considered as the new unknown Georgian version of the composition. The differences between this version and other redactions are significant.

Keywords: Armenian manuscript, the life of Gregory the Enlightener.


The Essence of Art and Artist in Iris Murdoch’s Novel “The Black Prince”

The main aim of this paper is to show the key essence of the art in society on the example of Murdoch’s most famous novel “The Black Prince”. This novel allows a reader to have a clear understanding of art, its role and purpose. This issue is almost very common not only in Murdoch's novels, but in her critical essays and articles as well. The paper shows the purpose of art and its function in the society. The conclusion summarizes the final view of the art by means of Iris Murdoch’s outlook and her novel “The Black Prince”.

Keywords: art, isolation, love.


On the Comprehensibility of „Guidebooks“ in the Banking Field

The paper aims to carry out the comparative analysis of German and Georgian guidebooks in the field of banking. The research is chiefly focused on the text comprehension model, because the study of instructions in the field of banking identifies certain linguistic features of a text. A text must be comprehensible for a reader in order for the latter to perform the banking transactions correctly and legally.

Keywords: guidebook, instructional text, the language of a particular field.


Some Ottoman Sources on One Metochion of Iviron Monastery in Melnik

Ottoman sources about the Iviron Monastery have not yet been the subject of academic inquiry in Georgia. Exploration of the history of Iviron of the period following the fall of Constantinople is of great importance in gaining a better understanding of the presence of Georgians, their activities, their role, as well as the property indicated in the records referring to the Monastery and, largely, for the study of its history.

Keywords: Iviron, Ottoman, the Rozhen Monastery.


The Symbolic-Allegorical Interpretation of Vazha-Pshavela's Fairy Tale - 'The Mill'

A certain part of Vazha-Pshavela's prose has not been thoroughly studied. One of his works is the fairy tale “The Mill”, which has interesting attitudes towards Christianity and different aspects of the writer’s oeuvre. The paper presents the attempt of the interpretation of this fairy tale.

Keywords: allegory, fairy tale “The Mill”, symbol, "The Snake-Eater", Vazha-Pshavela.


„Robustos Viribus“ Georgians and „Effeminatus“ Greeks

The article presents the attitude of Latin historian William of Tyre to the Georgians as to the most distinguished fighters. The Archbishop of Tyre interestingly compares Latin and Byzantine soldiers and with a great respect as well as proud characterises the Iberians as brave warriors. We considered it interesting to take this issue forward and to discuss it in detail.

Keywords: Byzantine, Crusaders, everyday history, Iberians, Latin East.


Teaching Polysemous Words to High School Students

The paper presents an innovative method of teaching polysemous words to high school students which enables them to easily understand and memorize meanings of polysemous words and idioms. Studies in cognitive linguistics show that polysemous words form a structure of interrelated senses, which can be described and made explicit. This approach can be transferred and used in teaching the vocabulary of foreign languages.

The article also contains a plan of a lesson that serves as a guide for teachers of the English language in teaching polysemous words.

Keywords: Cognitive mechanisms, polysemous nouns, semantic bridges, teaching the vocabulary


The Basics of Formation of Consciousness of the Experiencing Autobiographer: Emotion and Cognition (Based on “My Adventure” by Akaki Tsereteli)

The paper proves that in conditions of the absence of the verbal thought, observation of emotions in “My Adventure” is the only way of studying the consciousness of the experiencing autobiographer. The methodological basis of the paper is Alan Palmer’s concept of integrity of mentality worked out in accordance to Searle’s taxonomy.

Keywords: Akaki Tsereteli, autobiography, cognition, emotion, narratology.


The Late Antique Period Grave from Gudabertka

The paper deals with the Late Antique period grave discovered near Gori, on the archaeological site named Gudabertka. The grave was found in the 70s of the 20th century. It presented various grave materials as well as the ritual object - the pottery figure of the deer. The grave inventory has not been studied by scientists yet. It enters the scientific space for the first time.

Keywords: cult, Eastern Georgia, figure of a deer, Late Antique period, ritual.


Painting and Lia Sturua’s Reminiscences

The paper examines Lia Sturua's poetic reminiscences and their relationship with painting via relying on her lyrical works. It discusses the topics covered in Lia Sturua's verses, for instance, the disruption of values, peculiarities of creative works of artists, the importance of culture and the role of the art in life.

Keywords: art, painting, poetry, Impressionists, Pirosmani.


The Complex Negative Nominal Lexemes in Georgian: Structure and Principles of the Functional Distribution

The paper focuses on the structure, chronological development and functional distribution of the complex negative nominal lexemes. Out of the arbitrarily distinguished four groups of such lexemes, the most productive are those with negative particles ara-/ar- "no/not". They appeared in Old Georgian texts and gradually became more widespread in contemporary Georgian. The particles ara-/ar- "no/not" form antonymous pairs in the literary Georgian. They are widely used in the formation of the terminological system. These lexemes also create the peculiar nominal forms in the live Georgian speech. The analysis of these forms reveals the chief and facultative functions of particles ara-/ar- "no/not": the categorical negation and its actualization (emphasis). The particles ara-/ar- "no/not" are capable of combining these two meanings. This is especially obvious if we compare these lexemes with the nominal elements containing prefix u-, which denotes absence.

Keywords: chronology, function negation, structure, the Georgian language.


The Economic Side of the Conflict in Tskhinvali Region

While studying the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, it is very important to draw parallels between the beginning and the last phase of the conflict. One of the important and interesting sides of the conflict is the economic factor. The study and comparative analysis will yield a significant information for the scientific analysis of the given period.

Keywords: Conflict in Tskhinvali Region, Democratic Republic of Georgia.


Political Neologisms in Global Politics and the Issue of their Transposition from English into Georgian

The present article aims to analyze one of the most problematic issues of the modern translation studies, the translation of neologisms. More specifically, the article concentrates on the modern English political neologisms, translation strategies for their transposition into Georgian and outlines the main tendencies.

Keywords: political neologisms, translation strategies, transliteration.


The Issue of the Determination of the Feminine Sexuality in the Oeuvres of Turkish Women-Authors (Pınar Kür and Duygu Asena)

The paper “The Issue of the Determination of the Feminine Sexuality in the Oeuvres of Turkish Women-Authors (Pınar Kür and Duygu Asena)” discusses one of the important questions of the feminist criticism considering a woman’s body and sexuality. The issue is studied on the example of the oeuvres of Turkish women-authors Pınar Kür and Duygu Asena. During the analysis, the attention is paid to the strategies that determine the feminine sexuality.

Keywords: feminine sexuality, feminist criticism, Turkish literature, women-authors.


Fredrick Nietzsche’s Conception of the Tragic Art - the Criticism of Galaktion’s Reception

The paper discusses the reception of Friedrich Nietzsche’s philosophy in Georgian poet Galaktion Tabidze’s notes and diaries. The relevance or irrelevance of Galaktion’s reception to Nietzsche’s philosophy is proved via the relevant citations taken from the philosopher’s works and via a general analysis.

Keywords: Dionysian, metaphysics, proving, torture, tragic.


Sandro Tsirekidze's View on the Genre of Miniature

The paper discusses Sandro Tsirekidze’s view on the genre of the miniature. Sandro Tsirekidze clearly formulated his viewpoint on the origin and task of this genre. He paid a special attention to the artistic-aesthetic principles of the miniature and made an attempt to separate it from other small prosaic genres.

Keywords: miniature, prose, rhythm, Sandro Tsirekidze.


From the History of the Relicts of Mtis (Mount) St. George Monastery — St. George Icon of Agara and its Origin

So-called St. George Icon of Agara is one of the most important artifacts from the survived relicts of Mtis (Mount) St. George Monastery. This icon of the 11th c. was brought to this monastery in Racha region from the village Khorga of Samegrelo region. Later, the icon was carried to the newly built church in the village Agara. This article is dedicated to the origin of Icon of Agara, the dynamics and the reasons of its transportation.

Keywords: Agara, Khorga, Monastery, Mtis (Mount), St. George.


A Gender Transformation in the Character of Style of Clothing and Dressing in Post-Soviet Georgia

The paper discusses the peculiarity of dressing in post-Soviet Georgia and its relation to the gender equality. We mention that a gender stereotype is maintained in women’s and men’s representations in the streets of post-Soviet Tbilisi. At the same time, the tendencies of pluralisation and liberalisation of styles is actively developed.

Keywords: clothes, gender, identification, liberalisation, post-Soviet Georgia.


The Notes about Besarion Orbelishvili Presented in the Sources

The 18th century was the period of a political diversity and dramatism. The ideology of a country is a basis of a state. The ideology must rely of the originality as well as on the traditional and cultural values of the nation. The ideology is created by culture, education and science. For this reason, Georgian literary works did not stop even during hard times. This fact is proved by the existence of Gareja Literary School (the 18th century). One of its prominent figures was Besarion Orbelishvili.

Keywords: customer, manuscript, prelate, rewriter.


The Local Peculiarities of the Development of the Kura-Araxis Culture on the Example of Sakdrisi

The paper briefly describes the history of the development of metallurgy in Georgia, the social change based on the metal production in the Kura-Araxis culture, enhancement of trade relationships and the discovery of one of the most important metallurgical details - an orifice pipe – in Sakdrisi mine, as well as its parallels in South Caucasus, Anatolia and the Alps.

Keywords: archeology, metallurgy, mining, Sakdrisi, the Kura-Araxis culture.


The Golden Beads in Pre-Antique Colchis

The paper deals with the study of beads (one category of objects of Colchian goldsmithery of the pre-Antique period), their finding, typological classification and determination of their cultural belongingness via parallels and technological characteristics.



Initial survey of unknown complex settlement in the valley of Chkhere river in Stepantsminda, Greater Caucasus, Sakartvelo.

The author delivers the coherent description of the encountered remains of the unknown historical settlement located atop distinctive topographical feature in vicinity to Darial Pass/Dariali Gorge. The report shows immense possibilities for further methodological undertaking, its importance and necessity in the light of the modern development leading to a possible loss of the rich, but fragile historical heritage of Georgian nation as well as countries in close and further neighborhood.

Keywords: archaeology, Greater Caucasus, Khevi region, settlement, survey.


The Elements of Postmodernism in Harold Pinter’s Play “The Homecoming”

The paper aims to define some key elements for proving the idea about the existence of postmodernist bases in the given play. Pinter uses the simplest vocabulary and daily themes for the dialogues. Depending on these dialogues, a reader/spectator can easily perceive how far these relationships are from the true family relations. It also should be noted that in the world, where we live today, in this reality, researching Pinter’s plays is really important.

Keywords: absurd, Harold Pinter, Postmodernism, reality, unreality.


The Role of Tourism in the Management of Cultural Heritage Sites

The article explores the positive and negative impacts of tourism on the management of cultural heritage sites. It aims to raise the issues of a sustainable tourism development and a visitor management at the cultural heritage sites in Georgia that require an urgent attention.

Keywords: cultural heritage sites management, cultural tourism, UNESCO World Heritage List, visitor management.


Tennessee Williams’ “Streetcar Named Desire” - Principles of Contrastive Analysis of Translations Made by V. Nedelin, G. Jabashvili and L. Inasaridze

The paper focuses on the contrastive analysis of translations of Tennessee Williams’ “Streetcar Named Desire” made by V. Nedelin, G. Jabashvili and L. Inasaridze. The research has proved that all the translations are based on a unified strategic approach characteristic of the verbocentric version. Certain differences have also been outlined, based on the peculiarities of the recipient cultures (Russian and Georgian) as well as the diverse creative styles of the translators.

Keywords: contrastive analysis, linguopersona, symbol, translation, toponym.