Discourse of Socialist Realism and Some Peculiarities of Georgian Soviet Literature

 It is impossible to create a complete history of Georgian literature without in-depth, free of prejudice and unbiased study of Georgian Soviet literature from the vantage point of today. This paper deals with some peculiarities of Georgian literature of socialist realism: its attitude to life, traditions and "socialist realist happy ending".

Keywords: socialist realism, literature, ideology, happy ending.

 
 
 
 

Poetics of Grigol Robakidze’s Novels

This paper is the first attempt to define the poetics of Grigol Robakidze. The viewpoint that Robakidze's novels have established themselves as a new type of modernist novel, namely ontological novel has been discussed.

Keywords: poetics, ontological novel, mythos, tropology.

 
 
 
 

Structural and Compositional Organization of Plato’s Sophist

This paper deals with the issues of structural and compositional organization of Plato's Sophist. The method of structural analysis has been tried out in the study of this dialogue and its separate episodes. The obtained structures and their characteristics are presened.

Keywords: Plato, Sophist, structure, composition, dialogues.

 
 
 
 

For the Typology of Galaktion’s Symbolist and Novalis’ Romantic Poetry

The given paper discusses the major tropologic concepts of Galaktion's and Novalis' (the most prominent representative of German Romanticism) poetry. Their conceptual closeness, as well as their peculiarities and differences are singled out and revealed.

Keywords: Galaktion, Novalis, symbol, tropology, typology

 
 
 
 

Reality and Literary Fiction (Otar Chkheidze’s “Artistic Revolution”)

The given paper deals with the representation of civil and ethnic conflicts of post-Soviet Georgia in the literary texts (on the example of Otar Chkheidze's "Artistic Revolution"). It presents the author's relation to the parties, which take part in the civil confrontation and studies the problem of relationship between the literary fiction and reality.

 

Keywords: :“Artistic revolution”, literary fiction, post-Soviet Georgia, reality, Zviad Gamsakhurdia

 
 
 
 

Aristotle on Homeric Innovation and Book 9 of the “Iliad”: Oral and Written Stages of Enlargement

The present paper discusses Aristotle's "Poetics" in the light of one significant aspect of the Homeric innovation. Taking into account the given source and modern Homeric conceptions, the author of the paper classifies  the distinguishing criteria of the oral and written stages, which supposedly existed within the perennial process of the formation of the "Iliad". By way of illustration of the above-mentioned Book 9 of the "Iliad" is analyzed.

Keywords: Aristotle’s “Poetics”, Homer, Martin Mueller, oral and written stages of enlargement of the “Iliad”, enlargement of Book 9 of the “Iliad” by means of dialogic parts of the text

 
 
 
 

Perfidy as a Strategy in Jorge Luis Borges’ “A Universal History of Infamy”

The given paper deals with "A universal history of infamy" - one of the notable and early works of the Argentine writer and thinker Jorge Luis Borges. The main emphasis is put on the characters of the work and author's methods of depicting their personalities.

Keywords: Borges, perfidy, the literature of the Latin America

 
 
 
 

For the interpretation of Davit Guramishvili’s Prayer and Supplicate for Trinity

The article deals with the two verses of Davit Guramishvili ("Prayer, when Davit felt hungry during imprisonment and asked God for bread" and "The Supplication to Trinity: Asking to show the road to Davit") and their main point and essence, whose source is the Lord's Prayer "Our Father." By these verses the Christian World outline of the poet and his artistic abilities are fully shown.

 

Keywords: Prayer, “Our Father”, Liturgical consciousness, the poet’s life on foreign land, the aspiration to God

 
 
 
 

Modernist Lyrical Discourse and ‘Blue Horses’ by Galaktion Tabidze

The present paper aims to interpret the lyrical poem ‘Blue Horses' by Galaktion Tabidze in the context of modernist lyrical discourse. The author believes that by ‘Blue Horses' new modernist lyrical discourse was established in Georgian lyric. The author suggests that the publication year of the poem (1915) can be seen as a date when Georgian modernist lyric emerged.

 

Keywords: Galaktion Tabidze, ‘Blue Horses’, modernism, symbolism, images

 
 
 
 

On the issue of women writer’s identity in contemporary Turkish Literature

The article deals with the process of self-identification of women authors in the writing space of modern Turkish Literature. Several opinions of women authors are cited about their attitudes towards the concept "Women Literature". A special attention is drawn at the technique of women hysteria that serves as a strategy of destructing the patriarchal discourse.

Keywords: Women authors, Women stories, Hysteria, “Feminine Literature” and “Masculine Literature”, Excessive mimesis

 
 
 
 

The “Linguistic crisis” of Hofmannsthal in the context of Fridrich Nietzsche’s linguistic-semiotic vision

The article discusses Hugo von Hofmannsthal and his main work important for it artistic and aesthetic values - The Letter of Lord Chandos - its philosophical and theoretical foundations and its relation to the main provisions of Friedrich Nietzsche's linguistic views.

Keywords: “Linguistic crisis”, Philosophy, Poetry, Fragmentation, De-personalization

 
 
 
 

America in the 1930s and Aldous Huxley’s After Many a Summer Dies the Swan

The article deals with “After Many a Summer Dies the Swan”, the first of Aldous Huxley’s novels from his American years. It considers America seen by the writer as the best example of archetypal technocracy, which vividly manifests the influence of technological and scientific progress on human values.   

Keywords: Huxley, America, Technological, Death, Eternal

 
 
 
 

Basil the Great on “outer wisdom” and ethical-moral principles (According to Address to Young Men on the Right Use of Greek Literature)

The article examines the attitude of Basil the Great towards pagan culture, literature. Based on a detailed analysis of the possible sources of the text, inter textual relations of Plato and Plutarch has been detected. The attempt of the Holy Father of Caesarea is to adjust to each other antique and Christian value.

Keywords: “Outer Wisdom”, Basil of Caesarea, Christianity, Plato, Plutarch

 
 
 
 

“The Murder of Gonzago”, “Hamlet” and “Meta-Hamlet”

The article deals with the metadramatic relationship existing between Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” and the play “The Murder of Gonzago” staged within it. Both plays portray essentially the same reality, thus suggesting that our reality also bears similar essence. Therefore, the article introduces the conventional term “Meta-Hamlet”.

Keywords: Shakespeare, “Hamlet”, “The Murder of Gonzago”, “Meta-Hamlet”, Robert Sturua.

 
 
 
 

One Aspect of Irish Mythology in James Joyce’s Finnegans Wake

James Joyce’s Novel Finnegans Wake causes much interest even nowadays. It is full of biblical, literary and mythological allusions. The article deals with the image of the main character - Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker, namely his connection with the Irish Mythology and he is shown as the High King of Ireland. 

Keywords: Irish Mythology, Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker, Finnegan, High King of Ireland.

 
 
 
 

Achilles’ Double ‘Greeting’ – “Iliad” 9.198/204

At 9.198 of the “Iliad”, Achilles greets, perhaps, only three ambassadors, or his friends, in the dual; however, at 9.204 the same greeting is repeated in the plural. In the process of interpretation of the issue several questions arose. In order to answer these questions, there is a need to reevaluate the whole embassy scene, but, again, from the Unitarian standpoint.

Keywords: the “Iliad”, the embassy, plurals with the duals, the changed formula, reconstructing a previous embassy.

 
 
 
 

Life as a Miracle in Jostein Gaarder’s Works

The article is with “The Orange Girl” a bestseller by a Norwegian writer Jostein Gaarder and deals with intertextuality in Jostein Gaarder’s works. The paper emphasizes the writer's extraordinary ability: lightly and even a little naively and what is more interestingly talk about the most difficult; “tempt” the reader into interaction with themselves as well as the text.

Keywords: Time, World, Retrospection, Regularity

 
 
 
 

Mutsali by Givi Margvelashvili: The Aesthetics of Post-modernism and the Problem of Deconstruction of the Classical Texts

Mutsali by Givi Margvelashvili one of the most interesting works in European post-modernism is a great example of how Georgian sources (Aluda Ketelauri by Vazha-Pshavela and Merani by Nikoloz Baratashvili) become interwoven in the western discourse. Hence, the deconstruction of the classical literary text, one of the most important characteristics of post-modern aesthetics, becomes apparent in Mutsali.

Keywords: Mutsali by Givi Margvelashvili, Aluda Ketelauri by Vazha-Pshavela, Merani by Nikoloz Baratashvili, Deconstruction of Texts, Postmodernism

 
 
 
 

The Issue of Interrelation of the Gedankenlyrik and the Philosophical Verse

The article explores the evolution of the concept of Gedankenlyrik and the central aspects of its development. The article analyses its interrelation with philosophical poetry, as well as the main characteristics of philosophical poetry.  

Keywords: Gedankenlyrik, Philosophical Poetry, Elegy, Reflexive Verse, Romanticism, Sentimental Poetry

 
 
 
 

Autofictional Narrative to rewrite the past Irakli Charkviani's Autonovel in Relation to Autofictional Prose

The given article studies the novel "Tranquil Swim" by Irakli Charkviani in relation to autofictional prose; it explores the forms of narratives used in this book and their functions. Te article also discusses autofiction as a phenomenon and different terms and issues related to it.

Keywords: Autofiction, narrative, autobiography, novel, fiction

 
 
 
 

The Theme of Encounter between East and West in the 20th Century Arabic Literature (1935-1966)

The present article aims to discuss the theme of encounter between East and West and the issue of cultural confrontation in the works of the outstanding writers of the 20th century (1935-1966) Arabic Literature, such as Taha Hussein, Yahya Haqqi, Suhayl Idris and Tayeb Salih.

Keywords: Arabic Literature, Encounter between East and West

 
 
 
 

Ezra Pound – Translator of Chinese Poetry

The article discusses translations by Ezra Pound, one of the most prominent figures of the 20th century literature and one of the founders of Modernism. Pound’s viewpoint on translation and his ways of achieving the translator’s intention are discussed at the example of his two verses translated from Chinese. The article mentions radically different opinions and controversy about his translations. 

Keywords: , Image; Imagism; Modernism, Translator’s intention, Vers libre

 
 
 
 

For the Artistic-Historical context of the Idea of “Union” in the Works of C. Montis

The paper makes an attempt to present the importance and the continuity of the idea of "union” in Costas Montis’ life and artistic work. The peculiarity of the research is the poet’s original style and manner of expression, which was maintained in the translations. At the same time, the attention is paid to the technic of the revival of historical peripeteias and the author's consideration regarding the necessity of reflection in the literature.

Keywords: Cyprus, freedom, history, revolution, the idea of the “union”

 
 
 
 

For the Understanding of Aghaza’s Literary Character in Vazha-Pshavela’s poem “Host and Guest”

    Aghaza is one of the outstanding characters of Vazha-Pshavela’s epic poetry. The Georgian literary studies presents opposite ideas regarding her. The paper makes an attempt to conceptualize  Aghaza’s literary character.

Keywords: For the Understanding of Aghaza’s Literary Character in Vazha-Pshavela’s poem “Host and Guest”

 
 
 
 

Identifying the Structural Symmetry of an Oral ‘Ur-Iliad’ through the Reconstruction of Agamemnon’s Earlier Embassies to Achilles

The article considers various notes and arguments that, in the author's opinion, are necessary for the reconstruction of previous versions (including the earliest one) of Agamemnon's embassy to Achilles which are considered as possible evidence for the identification of oral, the so-called recorded (i.e., fixed in writing), and written suppositional stages of the enlargement of “Iliad” 9; in this context, an attempt is made to determine the structural symmetry of a hypothetical oral ‘Ur-Iliad’.

Keywords: Homer, Agamemnon’s embassy, Oral-recorded-written, ‘Ur-Iliad’, Structural symmetry

 
 
 
 

Hyperbolization of The Knight in the Panther’s Skin in the Context of Medieval Thought

The proposed article deals with the hyperbolized conduct of characters in Rustaveli’s poem, The Knight in the Panther’s Skin. The discussion will be carried out directly in the context of the historical period, medieval thought and worldview which, we believe, will allow us to draw interesting conclusions. Such an approach to the subject is a novelty in its own way in the Georgian academic literature.

Keywords: Medieval worldview; miracle; The Knight in the Panther’s Skin; Hyperbolization

 
 
 
 

Imagism and Peculiarities of its Reception in the Georgian Literary World

The present paper looks into a Modernist movement – Imagism – which existed in Western literature for no more than a few years, but made a profound impact on its development.  However, it made no influence, whatsoever, on its contemporary Georgian literary scene. This paper gives an overview of the reception of Imagism in Georgian literary studies and translations.  It discusses the aesthetics of Imagism and peculiarities of its creation.  It briefly describes Georgian translations of the works of one of its founders and inspirers: Ezra Loomis Pound. 

Keywords: Image, Imagism, Verse libre, translation, Modernism

 
 
 
 

John Donne’s “The Relic”, as an Example of English “Metaphysical” Poetry

The purpose of the following work is to find and analyze characteristics typical to metaphysical wit in John Donne’s love poem “The Relic”. The poem is the perfect example of forced connection of conflicting ideas and images which expresses John Donne’s interest in similarity between physical and “metaphysical” worlds. Problems that John Donne discusses in his poetry are everlasting and are still interesting for the modern reader.

Keywords: metaphysical wit, paradox, voluptuous love, platonic love, John Donne

 
 
 
 

Plot-Compositional Interrelations in Translated Hagiography of the Genre of Lives

The paper aims to offer an overview oftranslated hagiographic works of the genre of Lives (namely, Lives of St. Antony the Great, St. Ephrem the Syrian, St. Sabbas the Sanctified, and St. John Chrysostom)from the plot-compositional perspective, on the basis of the parallels existing between them, to identify similar ordifferentcompositionalclichéd elements.

Keywords: plot, composition, translatedhagiography, the genre ofLives

 
 
 
 

The Ideal of “New Youth“ according to David Guramishvili’s Davitiani

The paper is dealing withthe problem of self-discovery in David Guramishvili’s Davitiani.According to the literarywork, youth is perceived as the state of being young, on the one hand, and as a symbol of spiritual rejuvenation of an individual, on the other. David Guramishvili who is willing toembark on his journey of self-discovery seeks to win a reputation for himself for generations to come.In accordance with the biblical instruction,the poet himself aspires towardsthe spiritual rejuvenation in order to have a deep insight into divine truth.

Keywords: Self-awareness,spiritual rejuvenation; youth; primal cause / the source

 
 
 
 

Organizing Ideological Texts in Soviet Literature for Children

DOI:  10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-7

 

This article discusses the types of organization of ideological texts in Soviet children's literature as a method of exerting influence. Three types of text organization are singled out based on specific literary examples. The method of narrative analysis and structuralism are employed as a theoretical framework for this research.


Keywords: ideology; Soviet ideology; children's literature

 
 
 
 

The Dualistic Nature of the Main Characters in Mario Vargas Llosa's novel “The City and the Dogs”

 

DOI:  10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-9

The work aims to identify and analyze the dualistic nature and duality of the main characters of Mario Vargas Llosa's novel “The City and the Dogs". Living in two opposing worlds - the school and the city - determines the dualistic nature of the characters and forces them to make a choice. In a dictatorial regime, the struggle for moral victory and the choice between good and evil are eternal problems and a topical issue for the reader.

 

Keywords: “The City and the Dogs”, parallel worlds, dualistic nature, choice

 
 
 
 

The Issue of the Interrelationship between Abu Qurrah and Theodore of Edessa Mentioned in the Old Georgian Translated Hagiographic Writings

DOI:  10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-8

 

The article discusses the text preserved in Georgian written sources and the issue of one of the characters in “Martyrdom of St. Michael”, Theodore Abu Qurrah. Theodore Abu Qurrah himself is one of the main characters in this work, the narrator of Michael's story and not the author. In parallel with “Martyrdom of St. Michael”, another text is preserved in Georgian sources, “The Life of Theodore of Edessa”, which was probably translated from Greek by Ephrem Mtsire. In it, as an integral part of the work, the so-called “Abu Qurrah” is also mentioned, however, with significant changes - the introductory part is omitted, in which Theodore Abu Qurrah is mentioned as the narrator of Michael's story, and Michael himself is quoted as a relative of Theodore of Edessa, Bishop of Edessa.

We are interested in the relationship between Theodore Abu Qurrah and Theodore of Edessa. We will try to find out what these two figures have in common, whether they were identified with each other and what caused this fact? Was Theodore Abu Qurrah just a literary alter ego, or was he a real person? Why was Theodore Abu Qurrah, the narrator of Michael's story, replaced by Theodore of Edessa in his life? Is it due to the motive of Basil of Emesa - the author of “The Life of Theodore of Edessa”- to further glorify the merits of his uncle, by connecting him with such a great figure as St. Michael or are we dealing with a misunderstanding? Should we consider that in the original version of “Martyrdom of St. Michael” instead of Theodore Abu Qurrah, the story of Michael was told to the sanctuary monks by Theodore of Edessa, who was later replaced by Theodore Abu Qurrah due to a mistake made by a particular person? In addition, we will discuss the relationship between John of Damascus and Theodore Abu Qurrah and present our hypothesis on how the tradition of the disciple-teaching of Theodore Abu Qurrah and John of Damascus should have been established on the basis of the union of John of Damascus and Theodore of Edessa.

Keywords: Theodore, Michael, Martyr, Edessa, Haran

 
 
 
 

The Relationship between Fantasy Genre and Religion (Based on the works of Rowling, Martin and Tolkien)

DOI: 10.55804/jtsu-1987-8583-15-6

This article is part of a doctoral dissertation. It discusses the works by J. Rowling, J.R.R. Martin, and J.R.R. Tolkien in a religious context. The three works of the fantasy genre (Harry Potter, The Song of Ice and Fire, The Lord of the Rings) are shown from the point of view of religion, and the role that religion plays in the fictional world of each of the authors listed.

Keywords: Martin, Religion, Rowling, Tolkien, Fantasy

 
 
 
 

“Joyful Summer” and the Idea of Divine Marriage

The poem “Joyful Summer” presented in the final part of “Davitiani” preaches about the church wedding as a logical result of  love. It is also considered a hymn of divine devotion. The main idea of the poem - marriage - is perceived as an allegory of the return of a person cleansed from sins to the kingdom of God through love. From this point of view, it is noteworthy to understand the symbols of the mentioned text and their relationship with the main problem, self-awareness, raised in “Davitiani”.

Keywords: self-awareness, marriage, robe, summer

 
 
 
 

Artistic Depiction of the Historical Processes of the 18th-19th Centuries in Vazha-Pshavela’s Prose ("Erem-Serem-Suremiani" / "My Journey to Erem-Serem-Suremianeti")

In his work "Erem-Serem-Suremiani" / "My journey to Erem-Serem-Suremianeti" Vazha-Pshavela describes  the national-social aspects of the historical-political changes that took place in the 18th-19th cc. Georgia. In "Erem-Serem-Suremiani" the author allegorically pictures  weakening Georgia, the annexation of Georgia by Tsarist Russia and the social-cultural results caused by these events.

Keywords: The prose of the 19th c. Georgia, the allegory in Vazha-Pshavela prose, national-social aspects in Vazha-Pshavela novels, the annexation of Georgia by Tsarist Russia

 
 
 
 

Happy Ending as a model of the world perception (from Georgian folk tales to social realism)

A Happy Ending is widely used nowadays as one of the diverse ways a literary work may end. It is a specific model of the writer's attitude to life and the world determined by many artistic, aesthetic and socio-political factors. There are many examples of a Happy Ending in Georgian literature of different periods (folk creativity, religious and secular writing).

The Happy Ending has proved to be a very productive model for the ideological purposes of Socialist Realism. Therefore, Socialist Realism used this model intensively to put fiction even more actively at the service of building a socialist society and the Communist Party.

Keywords: happy ending, folk tales, hagiography,

 
 
 
 

Tiresian Modernist Interpretation in Djuna Barnes "Nightwood"

The presented article considers the modernist Interpretation of the mythological hero — Tiresias in Djuna Barnes' novel "Nightwood". The novel illustrates the  symbolic and associative comprehensiveness of the prophetliving in Paris in the 1920s.

Keywords: Modernism, Hermaphrodite, Tiresias, Time

 
 
 
 

The problem of Absurd in Literary Grotesque

"Absurd literature" has put different intonation into contemporary literary grotesque. It is the case when grotesque is merged not with satire but with absurdity. In this paper grotesque is regarded on the example of the 20-th century literature as a special means of artistic conventionality.

Keywords: literature, grotesque, absurd, 20th century

 
 
 
 

On the Interaction of Dialogue and Monologue

The study of the issues related to dialogue and monologue is one of the topical problems in contemporary literary criticism. Certain peculiarity is created by their interaction and alternation so that the boundaries between them disappear. This paper considers the mentioned question both from theoretical and practical viewpoints.

Keywords: dialogue, monologue, author-narrator, alter-ego.