Compound Warfare ― Abkhazia 1992-1993

DOI:  10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-2


In this article, the war in Abkhazia is discussed according to the so-called “Compound War-fare” theory known in the history of military art. The factors that caused the defeat of the Georgian armed forces in the mentioned conflict are also analyzed.

Keywords: Abkhazian War, Compound Warfare, Hybrid Warfare, History of Military Art


Georgian Cuisine – “Invented Tradition”

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-3


The goal of Esma Kunchulia’s work  “Georgian Cuisine  Invented Tradition” is to understand the essence of national cuisine and discuss it according to cultural studies, memory studies and modernist theories of nationalism. This work is the first attempt to analyze the national cuisine in the framework of different theories.

According to the author of the article, national cuisine, as one of the symbols of the nation and a marker of national identity was created in the era of the formation of nations and became a part of the “great narrative” of the nation. The author considers the collection of dishes as an “invented tradition” by the “imagined community” and suggests that the “national cuisine” with the form and emotion it has today did not exist before the “formation” of nations.

The research shows that, for a modern person, national cuisine is a constituent part of the nation’s identification system, the symbols and the codes. Being a national symbol, the national cuisine carries an emotional load characteristic of the national culture for a member of the nation and treating it “wrongly” is as “dangerous” as mistreating other symbols.

Esma Kunchulia's work will be interesting for researchers of collective identity and cultural memory of the nation.

Keywords: Georgia, Georgian Culture, Georgian Cuisine, National Cuisine, Identity, Collective Identity, Self-determination, Nationalism, Nation Building, Invented Tradition, Imagined Communities, Places of Memory, Collective Memory


Georgia's Information Field During the Beginning of the Second Russian War Against Ukraine

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-4


The article focuses on how Russia's second unprovoked war against Ukraine was reflected in Georgia's information space during the information conflict (2022, February 24). Specifically, the strategies, processes, and information channels employed by Russia during the Ukraine War in Georgia to wage an information war in the country are analysed. The critical tasks to halt Russian information warfare are also discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Information War, Russia's War Against Ukraine, Information Security, Georgia's Information Field, Propaganda and Information-sabotage Operations


Time in the Work of Joseph Conrad

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-5


This article examines the problem of time according to five different works of Joseph Conrad. The research is based on the concepts of the philosopher Henri Bergson and the religious scholar Mircea Eliade, and accordingly, distinguishes two concepts of time in Conrad's work, psychological and mythological time.

Keywords: Conrad, Bergson, Eliade, Time, Mythos


“Joyful Summer” and the Idea of Divine Marriage

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-6

The poem “Joyful Summer” presented in the final part of “Davitiani” preaches about the church wedding as a logical result of  love. It is also considered a hymn of divine devotion. The main idea of the poem ― marriage ― is perceived as an allegory of the return of a person cleansed from sins to the kingdom of God through love. From this point of view, it is noteworthy to understand the symbols of the mentioned text and their relationship with the main problem, self-awareness, raised in “Davitiani”.

Keywords: Self-awareness, Marriage, Robe, Summer


Artistic Depiction of the Historical Processes of the 18th-19th Centuries in Vazha-Pshavela’s Prose ("Erem-Serem-Suremiani" / "My journey to Erem-Serem-Suremianeti")

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-7


In his work "Erem-Serem-Suremiani" / "My journey to Erem-Serem-Suremianeti" Vazha-Pshavela describes  the national-social aspects of the historical-political changes that took place in the 18th-19th cc. Georgia. In "Erem-Serem-Suremiani" the author allegorically pictures  weakening Georgia, the annexation of Georgia by Tsarist Russia and the social-cultural results caused by these events.

Keywords: The Prose of the 19th c. Georgia, The Allegory in Vazha-Pshavela Prose, National-social Aspects in Vazha-Pshavela Novels, The Annexation of Georgia by Tsarist Russia


The Criticism of the Soviet Ideology in the Novel ― "Der Kantakt"

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-8



One of the meta-fictional works by the German-language Georgian migrant author (Der Kantakt, 2009).  The novel consists of three thematic levels, two of which are meta-fictional,   and one of them is of an essay type.

It is devoted to the discussion and criticism of important issues, such as the Soviet Union and its violent system, the Communist ideology, repressions, etc. that come under the spotlight in this article.

Keywords: Margwelashvili, "Kantakt", Soviet Union, "Captain Vakush", Ideology, Meta-novel


Happy Ending as a Model of the World Perception (from Georgian Folk Tales to Social Realism)

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-9


A Happy Ending is widely used nowadays as one of the diverse ways a literary work may end. It is a specific model of the writer's attitude to life and the world determined by many artistic, aesthetic and socio-political factors. There are many examples of a Happy Ending in Georgian literature of different periods (folk creativity, religious and secular writing).

The Happy Ending has proved to be a very productive model for the ideological purposes of Socialist Realism. Therefore, Socialist Realism used this model intensively to put fiction even more actively at the service of building a socialist society and the Communist Party.

Keywords: Happy Ending, Folk Tales, Hagiography


A Modernist Interpretation of Tiresias in Djuna Barnes' Nightwood

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-10


The presented article considers the modernist Interpretation of the mythological hero — Tiresias in Djuna Barnes' novel "Nightwood". The novel illustrates the  symbolic and associative sugestiveness of the prophet living in Paris in the 1920s.

Keywords: Modernism, Hermaphrodite, Tiresias, Time


A Commentary to W. B. Yeats’ Poem "Meditations in Times of Civil War"

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-11


The article discusses W. B. Yeats's Meditations in Times of Civil War from The Tower, a major collection of W. B. Yeats’s late poems. Albeit not the most important or well-known, the poem extends the symbols and themes of The Tower and lends depth to its imagery. The article gives a detailed insight of the structure, themes, and images of this lengthy, seven-part poem.

Keywords: Yeats, Civil War, Tower


Actualization of Mythos in James Joyce’s Ulysses: Leopold Bloom’s Metamorphoses

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-12


The continual sequence of transformations described in Ulysses turns the novel into James Joyce’s Metamorphoses. By virtue of the series of metamorphoses, the reading of Ulysses bears the function of a ritual: an actual moment of the time is to be replaced with the mythical eternity.

Keywords: Mythos, Metempsychosis, Metamorphoses


The Personal Name Tariel ― The Artistic Enigma of the “Knight in the Panther’s Skin” [Historical and Philological Research]

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-13

The  article is about naming the main character of “Knight in the Panther’s Skin” – Tariel. The mentioned personal name is connected with the adjective root of Georgian origin derived from the -ier affix. The linguistics, historical and literary data are considered in order to unite thepresented viewpoints in one concept.

Keywords: “Knight in the Panther’s Skin”, The Concept of Rustveli, Personal Name ― Tariel, the Root of the Georgian Origin


Dionysian Definition of the Noun in Ancient Grammar

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-14


One of the fundamental truths of grammar is recognized as the referential definition of a noun, according to which it is a part of speech that expresses an object. There is no alternative to such an understanding of the noun in the European linguistic tradition. Making distinction of   the  universal sign of the noun – subjectivity – defined the similar understanding of this part of speech in the grammars of the  antique and Middle Ages. The first traditional European knowledge about the language appeared in Philosophy, representatives of which were studied the language as an expression of the thought.  Τέχνη Γραμματική by Dionysus is specially distinguished, which theoretically  justifies the logicism in the practice of studying the language.

Keywords: Definition of Noun, Aristotle, Dionysus, Noun, Grammar


Impoliteness and Identity in the Family Discourse Genre

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-15


In the present paper, impoliteness is considered to be a way of expressing and establishing oneself, as well as a method for shaping and maintaining interpersonal relations; Close social relationships are claimed to constitute a threat in the process of constructing one's identity.

Keywords: Identity, Impoliteness, Family


Persuasion and Emotion Framing in Public Speaking: Listener Centered Approach

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-16


The following study discusses emotion as an essential part of communication and defines it as a cognitive process that is schematically represented and activated in the context of persuasion on the base of shared cultural experience between the speaker and the listener.

Keywords: Public Speaking, Persuasion, Emotion Framing


The Rhetoric of Aggressive Humor

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-17


The article examines the results of the linguo-pragmatic research that focused on the analysis of the rhetorical possibilities of aggressive humor based on the qualitative and quantitative study of the given discourse in the theoretical framework of pragmatics, socio-pragmatics and semantics, considering certain intercultural aspects. The empirical material of the paper comprises 20 American and 20 Georgian "Stand-up" monologues.

Keywords: Aggressive Humor, Rhetoric, Irony, Sarcasm


Functions and Frequency of Using Code-switching in the Georgian Educational Discourse

DOI: 10.55804/jtsuSPEKALI-16-18


Within the context of teaching English as a foreign language, code-switching – alternating between two or more languages, in a single conversation or situation – is a common practice. This article is the first attempt to investigate the frequency and functions of code-switching by lecturers of general English language courses across the different universities in Tbilisi, Georgia. Building on existing literature [Myers-Scotton, 1993; Ferguson, 2003, etc.], this quantitative study uses survey responses from 92 lecturers and 220 students enrolled in general English courses at the university level in Georgia.  The objective is to reveal (1) the frequency of code-switching used by the EFL (English as a foreign language) course lecturers in the higher education discourse; (2) the functions of using code-switching in the EFL course; (3) and the EFL course lecturers' and students’ attitudes towards lecturers’ code-switching behavior.

Based on the results of the study, code-switching in the classroom can serve several functions such as communicative and intercultural difference. Moreover, students were found to hold far more positive attitudes towards their lecturers switching from English into Georgian during class than the lecturers themselves. Thus, it shows that lecturers believe in a conventional view (using only one language) of teaching a language. Surprisingly, although lecturers have a negative attitude towards using Georgian, 50-60% of participants use Georgian.

Keywords: Code Switching, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), Educational Discourse