Dukes of Burgundy – the Protagonists of the 15th Century Crusade and the Georgian Kings’ and Rulers’ Respective Stance

Based on the comparison of European sources and local materials, the article aims, on the one hand, to highlight the political and socio-economic factors related to the position-involvement of the Georgian rulers in one of the most problematic international issue - stopping the Ottomans, to explain why we consider the Duchy of Burgundy be considered the most consistent out of the Western European states to the idea of the crusade;  also, on the basis of the reports of trade agents, travelers, representatives of religious missions and spies, explore the situation in the Black Sea region and Georgia of that period – insight into the development prospects and perceptions and apart from the Roman Curia, who and why could be an ally and supporter of the Georgians among the political leaders in the West.

Keywords: eastward travelers and spies, crusader plans, anti-Ottoman alliances


Literary Images of the City in Lia Sturua's Poetry

Lia Sturua is one of the most prominent poets of the twentieth century. At all stages of her work, interest in urban space is evident; In this article, we will analyze the works by Lia Sturua and explore the forms and images the urban space is presented by, the issues related to this pro-cess and the features that distinguish them.

Keywords: urban space, Lia Sturua, literary images


Sound Archive of the Humboldt University of Berlin and its Georgian-language Audio Recordings (1915–1918)

The presented research is dedicated to the audio recordings of the Georgian prisoners, who were the participants of the First World War; the recordings were performed in 1915-1918 in the camps operating on the territory of Germany and are collected in the archives of Humboldt-Forum.  In the presented publication we consider the essence and the history of the audio archive, the fact of making the camps as a scholarly-research laboratory, the technology of the performing of the audiograms, the methods of their transfer to a sheet of paper, their cataloging and archiving. The Mannheim Georgian corpus stands in the center of the publication; We have developed our own model of the research in order to describe the Mannheim corpus in the cultural, historical and linguistic scopes of view.

Keywords: audio recordings, Humboldt-forum, German camps, Mannheim corpus, analysis of the audiograms


Azerbaijani Press in Tbilisi /XIX Century/

The presented article analyzes the history of Azerbaijanian periodical press, produced in Tbilisi – in the administrative and cultural center of the South Caucasus. On the basis of the archival sources, it is illustrated that Azerbaijani periodical editions have been under the strict control of the Caucasus Censorship Committee.

Keywords: Azerbaijani press, Tbilisi, censorship, Russian imperia, South Caucasus


Nikoloz Baratashvili’s Less Studied Official Letters

The letters of Nikoloz Baratashvili provide the reliable material to contribute to the private life, works and worldview of the writer.  These letters are divided into official letters written to friends and relatives regarding private and work responsibilities. Only the letters of the personal content have been the objects of the researchers’ observations until now. However, as it has been revealed, the official letters as well unmask the numerous interesting details, that have been unknown until nowadays.

Keywords: Nikoloz Baratashvili, official letters, epistle


The Mission of Odysseus in the “Iliad”: Has it always Failed?

The main purpose of the article is to outline the likely plot and protagonist(s) of the original, short version of the "Iliad" or "Ur-Iliad" composed orally by Homer; and to reconstruct the possible stages and trace some of the artistic principles of its transformation, again by Homer, into the monumental poem that we have. Therefore, the author takes into account books 9 and 19 of the current "Iliad", as well as various points from the rest of the poem.

Keywords: books 9 and 19 of the “Iliad” by Homer, structural symmetry of the “Ur-Iliad”, protagonist(s) of the "Ur-Iliad", the three stages of the expansion of the “Ur- Iliad”, adaptation through insertions.


Transformation of Euripides’ Phaedra in British and Georgian Theatres

The article discusses the transformation of Euripides’ Phaedra in ancient, British and Georgian space, based on Euripide’s “Hippolytus”, British playwright Sarah Kane’s play: “Phaedra’s Love”, and famous Georgian choreographer Giorgi Aleksidze’s modern ballet: “Diplipito”.

Keywords: Euripides, Phaedra, Sarah Kane, Aleksidze, transformation


Deer Mythologeme and Myth-making in Vazha-Pshavela's Prose

In the works by Vazha-Pshavela, the mythology and symbolism of the deer signifi-cantly determines the writer's literary paradigm, because the author frequently uses it and in different functions.

Keywords: deer mythologeme, myth-making, Vazha-Pshavela's prose


Climate Symbolism in T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land [1]

As the year 2022 marks the 100th anniversary since the publication of T.S. Eliot's “The Waste Land”, numerous international academic events have been dedicated to the poem and its publication history. The article explores Eliot's poem in the scope of its modern reinterpretation from an ecocritical lens. The symbolic poetics related to the climate references in the text is analyzed from a novel perspective and its symbolism is emphasised as one of the structural elements of the modernist poetry.

Keywords: T.S. Eliot, modernism, The Waste Land, ecocriticism


Zoya Pirzad's Characters in Search of Identity

The article discusses the process of searching for a woman's place and purpose according to the works of modern Iranian writer Zoya Pirzad. The focus is on women's legal standing in a patriarchal culture, on their ongoing quest to break down the deeply ingrained obstacles of tradition and create their own identities.

Keywords: women's literature, feminism, Persian literature, Zoya Pirzad, women's rights


Techniques of Magical Realism in Salman Rushdie’s Novel – Midnight’s Children

The article discusses magic-realistic elements in the novel, Midnight’s Children by the English author, Salman Rushdie. It explores how the post-colonialist author uses a magic-realistic technique to address various socio-political issues, highlighting its significance for marginalized and oppressed groups in the context of post-colonialism.

Keywords: Salman Rushdie, post-colonialism, magical realism, Midnight's children


Oğuz Atay’s s Novel “The Disconnected” from Habitus Perspective

In the presented article  a  novel by  20th century distinguishingly interesting Turkish writer - Oğuz Atay - “The Disconnected” is considered in the context of the concept of the habitus developed by the French sociologist -  Pierre Bourdieu. The aim of the article is to answer the following questions on the basis of observing the protagonists of the novel:

a) What kind of fields and habitus does the reader find in the novel?

b) Does the habitus, formed under the influence of the objective social environment and supported by preconceived schemes, change as a result of the new schemes included in it by the individual?

Keywords: Turkish literature, Oğuz Atay’s s novel “The Disconnected”, Pierre Bourdieu, the conception of the habitus


Traces of Orality in Classical Arabic Maqamat

Maqama is the only genre of classical Arabic prose. It does not have an analogy in the European literature. maqama emerged and developed in an era when oral and written literature coexisted. This combination had a dramatic effect on its shape and structure - the classical maqama compositions incorporate the traces of orality.

Keywords: canonical Arabic prose, oral literature, maqamat as a literary genre


Tear in XII-XIII Centuries’ Georgian Secular Writing

In the presented work the symbolic meaning of the tear is studied as well as the meaning and specific nature of using the lexical units related to the tear according to original Georgian secular monuments of XII-XIII centuries. The presented research is a kind of continuation of the work prepared by us in the framework of the Ph.D. seminar, that was dedicated to the same issue according to the original Georgian secular monuments of V-XI centuries.

Keywords: tear, original Georgian secular monuments of XII-XIII centuries


Images of Orthodox Mothers according to the Shatberdian and Chelishian Editions of the life of St. Nino

This work discusses the contribution of the orthodox mothers to the process of Christianization of Kartli. The issue is studied with the consideration of the Shatberdian-Chelishian editions of “The Conversion of Kartli.”  The detailed analysis of the women’s images, their words and contributions presented in the work make it clear that St. Nino managed to fulfill her mission and convert Kartli with the help of dedicated Mothers.

Keywords: “Conversion of Kartli”, St. Nino, orthodox mothers


The Problem of The Statues

The article discusses one of W. B.Yeats's most complex and controversial poems,  “The Statues”, which is written several months before the poet’s death. The work provides an insight into the structure of the poem, its main theme and mages, as well as conflicting critical ideas and problems of the interpretation.

Keywords: Yeats, Statues, Pythagoras


The Syntactic Function of Peculiar Forms with -დ (-d) Formant and the Issue of Formal Agreement (Based on the K14 Manuscript)

In the ancient Georgian, a noun had a –t suffix plural form in ergative, dative and genitive cases. Sometimes, the –t suffix plural form was also used in instrumental and adverbial cases. At a certain stage of the development of the language, nouns with the suffix -ta (-თა) were formed with the marker -d(a) (-დ(ა)). As a result, we got such forms: გონიერთადა (goniertada), საუნჯეთად (saunjetad), სხეულთად (sχeultad)... The article discusses similar R-ta-d(a) (R-თა-დ(ა)) structure forms. It also attempts to determine the reasons for their formation.[1]

[1] This research № PHDF-21-5365 has been supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (SRNSFG).

Keywords: syntagma, formal agreement, K14 manuscript


The Grammaticalized Element Chans and Related Difficulties in Corpus Linguistics [1]

This paper discusses the process of grammaticalization in the natural language system, presents the main theoretical postulates defining this process, describes the functional-semantic characteristics of the grammaticalized element chans, and discusses the difficulties related to it in corpus linguistics.

Keywords: grammaticalization, corpus linguistics, homonymy, functional-semantic analysis


Biblical Hymns in Ancient Greek and Georgian Versions of The Great Canon of St. Andrew of Crete [1]

At the early stage of the development of the Typikon,  the Great Canon of Repentance by St. Andrew of Crete was completed with the Biblical Hymns. In the presented article the relation of the Biblical Hymns preserved in the unstudied K-79 manuscript is compared with the other Georgian versions of the hymns. The Georgian versions are compared with the variants preserved in the Old Greek Source (Sinai Graecus 734-735).

Keywords: The Great Canon, Biblical hymns, editorial affiliation


Sardion Aleksi-Meskhishvili - a Georgian Translator in the First Half of the 19th century

One of the first Georgian doctors and translations of the 19th century, Sardion Aleksi-Meskhishvili (1814-1863) is less studied in terms of translation studies. In the following article, we will focus on the studied principles of translation activity and active participation in the discussion between the “Fathers’ Camp” and “Sons’ Camp” (Ustari Anticritical). The conducted research studies led us to confirm the first Georgian translator, Sardion Aleksi-Meskhishvili might be the translator of  Byron’s poem “Oscar of Alva” through the French language.

Keywords: Aleksi-Meskhishvili, Byron, Oscar of Alva, Georgian translation


Translations of the Studies of Evagrius Ponticus Made by Euthymius the Hagiorite [1]

This paper identifies and discusses the translations authored by Evagrius Ponticus (IV century) and translated by Euthymius the Hagiorite. Monk Evagrius, a famous Origenist, excommunicated by the Fifth World Church Council (553), is the author of many ascetic works in Greek. Many of his works were spread over time under the names of other church writers, and the original versions of some were completely lost. The following works were preserved only in translations. Exhortations by Evagrius Ponticus became known in the Georgian language as extracts quite early (in the pre-Athonic period), although, as it turns out, many of his writings were also translated disguised by Euthymius the Hagiorite but under the name of St. Basil the Great and Maximus the Confessor.

Keywords: Evagrius Ponticus, Euthymius the Hagiorite, Basil the Great, Maximus the Confessor


The Issue of Transliteration of the Biblical Names of Abraham and Sarah into Georgian

In the Book of Genesis, the Lord promises Abram that he will become the father of numerous descendants. As a sign of this great mission, he changes the names of both Abram and his wife, Sarai [Gen. 17:5, 15]. This article aims to show in what form (Greek or non-Greek, taking into account the oriental literary-textual tradition) the original and modified names of Abraham and Sarah were transliterated into Georgian by the old translators-editors. The issue is explored taking into account all possible foreign language sources. Depending on the volume of the article, it is published in two parts: in the first part, the issue of rendering of the above-mentioned proper names in the books of the Old Testament is discussed, and in the second part – the same issue in the New Testament, lectionaries, as well as in other written sources of old and middle Georgian and the translations made into the new Georgian language.

Keywords: transliteration of proper names, Abraham, Sarah, biblical translations