The Function of Neologisms in French and Georgian Media Discourse

Neology and neologisms are a widespread process which means the creation of new words or giving new importance to the existing words. In Linguistics there is a widespread opinion that there are semantic and formed neologisms. Formed, or neologisms, are words which emerged with the appearance of a new reality that never existed before and semantic neologisms, means when words are given new connotations. The two types of neologisms have a third aspect which is called. Jean-Francois Sablayrolles reviews borrowings as the third immensely important source of Neology.

The difficulty with Neology begins when the discourse of the addressee (the reader or listener) tries to distinguish neologisms in this discourse. The Researcher faces the task to determine whether it is or not “neology” on this level of lexical unit. We have to put much effort in finding whether a lexical unit is a neologism or not. Which of them should be considered neologisms, the ones in the vocabulary or those who have not entered it yet? Whether the Neologism is still valid or not? Is it a neologism or a metaphor or a metonymy? In other words, the process showed that the creation of lexical units is not an easy process as well as the results of such a study.

It is a common truth that communication is the natural aim of language, a postulate of linguistic functioning. Since language is a tool for thought and communication for humans, each of us participates in the process of Neology. Even children are actively involved in this process, especially when they learn to speak and when they want to express their wishes and due to the lack of vocabulary and words invent new expressions or words. In some cases, teenagers are in favour of Neology, and by inventing new words in spoken and written language they create their own world and by it draw a line of independence from adults. But Adults are the ones mostly involved in the process of Neology. It is connected with invention, new technology, processes of thinking and artistic, literary creativity.

The problem that the research of Neology and Neologism comes across is the determination of the language itself. It has been centuries that researchers are striving to answer this question.1 Despite this, in most cases it is almost impossible, to find an explanation of the words and, in general, the origin of speech. However, one of the tasks of Linguistics is to describe new words and to determine what their purpose in a synchronic prism. Neology depends not only on evolution, but also on creation. To define the concept of Neology it is better to see it in a synchronized prism, i.e., the relationship between linguistic elements of the system [Guilbert 1973:11]. The listing and description on a particular historical stage of the development of language is rather interesting, not only to study the language but to better understand the concrete historical epoch.

As for the age of Neologism, the average age used to be ten years, but nowadays it has become five years: after five years the new lexical unit starts to whither [Pruvot, Sablayrolles, 2003:36]. From the second half of the twentieth century, the emergence of Neologisms has been gradually increasing, which was facilitated by many factors: first, the development of electronics and, in general, equipment, medicine, informatics, the collapse of the Soviet Union, no more borders, the unprecedented rates of globalization, and so forth. This, of course is not the full list of events, which led to the twenty-first century and the present rate of Neology processes. Accordingly, the age criteria for the creation-extinction of Neologisms have changed. However, even this cannot be said resolutely because the status of “Neology” varies according to the size and distribution of the neologism [Sablayrolles, 2006:141-157].

The language in order to be able to play an important role in the social act, which is vital for communication, it is necessary, that it should give us the opportunity to create new words [Vendryes, 1921]. Every living language, which follows the development of society, should introduce mechanisms for Neology which are needed to create new lexical units. All of this is required by the progress in education and technical transformations. This dynamic gives rise to the need create vocabulary by updating it; this is what linguists call "Open Series".

In the process of Neology preference is given to the "Open Series". Andre Martinet found the different features between grammatical words and lexical words2. Grammatical words belong to the so-called "Closed series" and Lexical words - "Open Series". Grammatical words, the tool-words3 is a part of the closed series, since it is impossible to establish at a certain period of the history of the development of language, for example, the correlation between compound connections or person pronouns [Martinet,1968]. Only in diachronic perspective, in the long history of language development can some changes be made in grammatical vocabulary. However, the lexical words may be established gradually, according to the necessity. This is a continuous and unlimited process.

This explains the fact that Neology consist mainly of lexical words, and that Neologisms are created by means of Morphological tools. This latter according to classic definition is the Formed Neology. Accordingly, this highlights that existing words are given new meanings; this is, basically, the so-called Semantic Neology. We should also outline a form of Neology, which is derived from the dialect or borrowings from the old forms of language. As for Foreign languages, namely borrowed words from English language, we share the view of Sablayrolles, and consider it as a separate category, due to its scale. At the same time in Anglicism or borrowings from other languages often reflect the accumulation process.

These are the general categories of Neology, which is the primer goal for research for every linguist.

One important area where Neologisms are created and then tested is media space, both printed and electronic.

Based on the Material found in French and Georgian media we can state that the vast majority of neologisms come from the nouns’ and verbs’ category, compared to it fewer neologisms are connected with adjectives, and the least is adverbs.

Among Neologisms I would like to separate syntactic Anglicism. They are dangerous, because they are those secretly settled in the receiving language. In the French and Georgian language, it is basically copying the American variant of English language and its syntactic structure characteristics. For example: French language: en charge de (in charge of); chargé de, responsable de (is charged, is responsible); Est sous contrôle (under control); est maitrisé (is ruled); Faire sens (to make sense); avoir un sens (to have some sense).

Similar processes are going on in the Georgian language. In the Georgian media we have repeatedly heard the phrase: "Stay with us", that is not natural for the Georgian language and is merely a syntactic copy.

In the category of nouns, most Neologisms come from Anglicism.

For example: il a mimé le scratch d’un discjockey …à la perfection [Elle edito. P.5 10 aout 2012].

De plus en plus de gens achètent e-book [RFI 11.11.2012. 09 :50].

Un feeling est passé entre eux [yahoo.France. 09.02 2012].

In the phrases mentioned above the Anglicism belong to the category of lexical Anglicism; this means that the English words have entered directly in the French language with their pronunciation, spelling, meaning, and without any changes. Thus, in order to make them "French" they are given relevant articles and plural markings. Some Anglicism is “false Anglicism” as for example the word pressing which is the equivalent of dry-cleaning. This is not an English word. We also have the case of “half-Anglicism”. For example a French linguist [TV 5. Monde. Merci professeur. 30.03.2009], argues that the word surbooké, was created by the analogues of English words: overbooking და surbooking.

Among the French Neologisms by the frequency of use come Sigles and Acronyms. Of course, these developments have their own reasons. Todays accelerated pace of life pushes people to be economically and quickly bring the listener to make sense; the principle of the economy has become rather important. Humans try to use the least effort but to achieve the maximum profit [Martinet, 1970:178-179].

BD,ciné,télé….Aujourd’hui on trouve les héros partout !...Voici votre palmarès [OKAPI. 1 fevrier. 2011. P.27].

veut que 20% des embauches concernent des jeunes issus de ZUS [zone urbaine sensible] [Le Monde. 29.05. 2013].

Among the Georgian Neologism here and there are Sigles, but their number is not large, and the frequency is relatively low in contrast to the French language; here LLC (Limited Liability Company), GGS (Georgian Geographical Society) and others are used for banners and names of institutions.

Abbreviation can be found in all types of media, but mostly in youth press, such as OKAPI and PHOSPHORE. Or while quoting youth speech,

en ayant joué durant sa prépa plus de dix heures par jour [Nouvel Observateur. 25-31 oct. 2012.p.9].

Etudes sup: faites les bons choix [OKAPI. 15 jan.2011.p.25].

Tandis qu’Egyptology nous redonne goût au synthé [ELLE. 10 aout 2012.p.31].

Georgian Media Space is full of Anglicism. In most cases we have to deal with lexical Anglicism and mostly we have terms connected with technologies, like Likes, CDs, Prime Card, Live, Visual, Blog, Blogger, PlayStation, Shortlist, etc.

Then we send outlines to the girls [Imedi. 03.02.2012. 22:30].

The winner will be announced by the majority of Likes. [I Channel.14.02.2012.].

Sometimes such Neologisms are put in quotation marks

...Maybe they touched these two buttons and transferred all the information on a flash-card? [Georgia and the World. 7-13 August, 2013, N29. pg.6].

But I do not think that because of this we should change the political establishment every day [Tbiliselebi. 15-21 July, 2013. N29. pg.9].

It should be noted that these morphological and phonetic adaptation of Anglicism in the Georgian language is far easier than in the French language. In the beginning in the French language these Anglicism is expressed by the reading rules of the French language and only after sometime does it full integrate in the language. A good example for this is pipeline which has a matching French word gazoduc, oleoduc (gas pipelines, oil pipelines), and it is pronounced in English as 'paiplain and the French equivalent of the word co-exists and is read in the French version. French people often express it as a piplin-. After some time it becomes impossible to determine the borrowed word. The Phonological and Morphological adaptations of Anglicism in the Georgian language are much easier.

The actions of the opposition were aimed to gather protest for further utilization [Georgia and the World. 7-13 August, 2013, N29.pg6].

We took the international domain, so that it will be accessible for international consumers [Imedi. Kronika.10.02. 2012. 20:25].


In Georgian Media there are many examples of formed Neologisms, where the meaning of the word is being changed. In this case we have none of the four mechanisms outlined by Pruvost, such as shrinking the meaning, increasing the meaning, weakening the meaning or contamination [Pruvost, 2002:32]. We have a more metaphorical understanding of the word. For example, space (connected with Internet Space) and basket (the list of exported and imported goods) are mere copies.


We think of creating a space [Imedi. Kronika 10.02. 2012. 20:52].


If we take the basket of exported and imported goods [Tbiliselebi. N29 15-21 July, 2013. Pg. 9].


If the Islamic world becomes a serious player…. [Channel 2, Talk Show “Time for Arguments” 11.06.2013. 22:30]. The player here is a metaphor. We have a case of Neologism, where the meaning is changed. It should be noted that before that in the talk show we come across the word Actor.


Along with the creation of new realities we get new lexical units as well. For example: Mars-Walker was sent in order to prove life on Mars [Imedi. Kronika 31.12.2012. 15:00].

L’amarissage du laboratoire scientifique modèle……a eu lieu comme prévu, peu après4 [Le Monde. fr.09:].


In the Georgian media as well as the French one can often find such neologisms, whose existence cannot be justified; since there are their equivalents in the Georgian language. Narrative, Protagonists, Mentality, Creativity, Performance, Visitors – are such lexical units, without which it will not be difficult for a Georgian to express his/her opinion, and even on the contrary, he/she can better state her/his opinion by the equivalent Georgian units.


    Accidental or intentional deviation from the rules of language is one of the important sources for the creation of Neologisms. The frequent use of the word in the wrong shape or barbarism (especially the media) gives the lexical units an overtone of Neology and thus establishes itself in the language [Pergnier, 1989:80].


Des moules et des frites à volonté:j’hallucine grave!” “C’est nul, lâche-t-elle. Je dis j’hallucine, je dis grave, mais jamais les deux à la fois [Phosphore. Mars. 2002.p.49].

The number of patients applying for help has increased [Imedi. Kronika 01.07.2013. 20:30].

...after you became a Minister does your wife use the public transport? [Georgia and the World. 7-13 August, 2013. N29. pg.14].


The peculiarity of Georgian Neologisms is that one can trace Russicism in them:

...the wife of the ruler went by tram to the prom academy [Georgia and the World. 7-13 August, 2013. pg. 14].

He had a syndrome of Pere dosing [Mze. Mzesumzira 14:45. 14.02 2013].

It is a better tri de [3D] [Imedi. Kronika 21:00. 30.08.2011].


Journalists often by accident or intentionally violate the rules of the language. Such speech is contagious, and the media is the space that most actively establishes the Neologisms in such a way.


French Neologisms from the category of verbs are mainly related with new technologies. New verbs emerged: faxer, textoter, podcaster, chatter, wikifier. All of them belong to the first group.


J’ai 5 ans et je tweete déjà [TV 5. 12.04.2012. 19:45].

Ils… googlisent trios lignes sur Camus [Nouvel Observateur.25-31 oct.2012.p.10].


Before you search, Google [Rustavi 2. Lucky Wheel 23.11.2011.11:30].

Je shoppe quoi chez H&M cet automne? [Yahoo.France.Pour Elles.23.08.2013].

The word shopping entered French Vocabulary in the 19th century, neither is - faire du shopping – new. But the verb shopper (first group) is new in the Internet Space.


Among the French adjectives we have truncations:

Il est 4 heures et le vacarme continue autour de Taksim de même que les tirs de grenades lacrymo [Le avec AFP. 01.06.20].


Multitâches” c’est ainsi que les chercheurs les définissent [Nouvel Observateur p.10. 25-31 octobre 2012].

Des policiers en tenue antiémeute [Le monde. Fr. avec AFP. 01.06.2013].



Encore une année “overmegacool » pour lui [OKAPI. 1 février. 2011. p.29].

Depuis quelques jours et pour la première fois en France, Eurolines propose…des liaisons interregionales par autocar toujours avec des tarifs low-cost [Le 28 mars. 2011].

Touquet c’est très british [TV 5.télé-matin 09:45. 07.07.2012].


Graphique Innovations:

Nos enfants, ces mut@ants [Le Nouvel Observateur. p.6. 25-31 octobre. 2012].


Neologisms related to technological innovations create new adjectives according to the French grammar rules of Word Formation:

Vous pouvez retrouver l’historique de son enquête tweetesque sur Storify [].


In Georgian Neology Adjectives we come across the usage of English Lexical units, but of course the morphological tools that re use re characteristic to the Georgian Language.

Such Servility dependence is not good [Ertsulovneba 20:45. 04.07.2012].

Killing of Children is a collateral loss [Channel 2, Talk Show “Time for Arguments”, 11.06.2013. 22:26].

The virus is so oppressed, that it does not pose any kind of Risk [Public Radio. Programme “Health” 23.07.2013.17:30].


We have cases of copying as well:

I could not imagine that Georgian TV series would be so watchful [Imedi. 30.07.2011. 19:30].

A similar trend is observed in the adverbs. In French adverbs (Neologisms) there is a significant influence of technological innovations:


les scientifiques ont pu reconstituer numériquement le crâne complet du bon roi Henri…[OKAPI. N907 1er février 2011 p.4].


Georgian Adverbs, like adjectives are created from Anglicism:

For him it was virtually important [Radio Station: Georgian Voice 10.08.2012.13:15]


Thus, despite the fact that neologisms operate according to appropriate linguistic mechanisms and, at a first glance, follow the system-categorical rules, it is difficult to make any general rules as well as to predict the timing of their integration in the language, how long it will continue its existence and how long it will retain the signs of Neology.


1 2001 it became clear that the genetic researchers found a gene FOXP2. This gene and its potential functions, and its influence on other genes is a major factor for language and speech [ Gary F. Marcus, Simon E. Fisher Cognitive Science 2003]
2 Grammatical words and lexical words are concepts established by Andre Martinet [Martinet, 1968].
3 Another concept established by Andre Martinet [Martinet, 1968].
4 L’amarissage means landing on planet Mars, which is totally new term.




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I Channel 14.02.2012.

II Channel. Talk Show “Time for Arguments” 11.06.2013. 22:26.

Ertsulovneba 20:45. 04.07.2012.

Tbiliselebi 15-21 July 2013. N29 pg 9.

Imedi. Kronika. 10.02. 2012. 20:25.

Imedi 03.02.2012. 22:30

Imedi. Kronika. 10.02.2012.20:52.

Imedi. Kronika. 31.12.2012. 15:00

Imedi. Kronika. 01.07.2013 20:30

Imedi. Kronika. 21:00. 30.08.2011.

Imedi. 30.07.2011. 19:30.

II Channel. Talk Show “Time for Arguments” 11.06.2013 22:30

Mze. Mzesumzira 14:45. 14.02 2013.

Georgia and the World. 7-13 August 6

Georgia and the World. 7-13 August 14.

Public Radio. Programme “Health”23.07.2013.17:30

Radio Station: Georgian Voice 10.08.2012.13:

Rustavi 2. Lucky Wheel 23.11.2011.11:30.

Elle édito. p.5, 10 aout 2012

ELLE. 10 aout 2012.p.31.

Le Monde. fr.09 : .

Le Monde. 29.05. 2013

Nouvel Observateur. 25-31 oct. 2012.p.6, p.9, p.10

OKAPI. 15 jan.2011.p.25

OKAPI. 1 février. 2011. p.4. p.27, p.29, p.36

Phosphore. Mars 2002.p.49

RFI 11.11.2012. 09 :50

TV 5. Monde. Merci professeur. 30.03.2009

TV 5. 12.04.2012. 19:45

TV5. télé-matin 07.07.2012 09 :45

Yahoo. France. 09.02 2012

Yahoo. France. Pour Elles. 23.08.2013