Comparative Analysis of Byron's Lyrics and Mose Karchava's Translations

        The Georgian literature has been enriched by a considerable number of excellent translations through the efforts of Mose Karchava in the 20th century. They are still popular today, but up to date no one has become interested in this wonderful translator and humorist. Our goal is to conduct a scholarly research of his biography and creative translations.
We have looked for information about Mose Karchava with great care. Much to our chagrin, we have discovered that little to no interest has been shown in this talented author and translator. Only in 2009, in his book entitled Roots, V. Rodonaia devoted four pages to him as a literary figure from Chkhorotsku. "Machabeli from Chogha" - this is the title of the article dedicated to Karchava. He calls him a creator, a writer, a journalist and a translator and believes that, “in a very short period of time, he has made an invaluable contribution to the Georgian literature. Great erudition, great talent ... and unselfishness – that is what permeated his life. Our translated literature will always be embellished by works of Shakespeare, Byron, Shaw and others translated by Mr. Karchava. According to scholars and specialists, after Ivane Machabeli, Mose Karchava was the first translator who could create best renderings of masterpieces of English literature into the Georgian language” [Rodonaia, 2009:505].
        Mose Karchava is buried in Chogha. We reached out to Chkhorotsku residents, but we failed to find any of his family members or descendants. We looked for information on Mose Karchava in the Chkhorotsku Museum as well, but nothing of significance was discovered there either. We were only given a single issue of the magazine Niangi (“Crocodile“). In 1985, Chkhorotsku residents commemorated 20 years since Mose Karchava’s passing. In the same year, the issues #9-10 of the satirical-humorous magazine Niangi  published a brief article with an undertone of sadness under the headline "Battle-Tested Editorial Team of Niangi ." Here Mose Karchava’s kindness and chivalry are manifested through brief recollections that are full of warmth and love: “Every applicant that visited the editor’s office was accepted, helped and encouraged by M. Karchava ...” [Niangelebi, 1985:4].
M. Karchava was born in 1914 [Obituary 1965:8] (1916, according to an alternative version). In 1935, after graduating from the Zugdidi Pedagogical Technical College, he became a teacher. In 1937 he was admitted to the TSU Faculty of Western European Languages and Literatures, graduating later in 1948 due to the war. He served in World War II. As we have discovered through the study of M. Karchava's life, he graduated from Telavi Military School in March 1943 and was set to the front lines of the war. In May 1943, he was captured by the enemy in the Battle of Kerch. After his escape from the prison camp in Romania, he crossed the front line, joining again his fellow soldiers there; He returned to Georgia in 1946 as a decorated veteran with the Order of the Red Star.
In 1948-1952, M. Karchava worked at the Department of English Language at Tbilisi State University and later at the State Committee of Radio and TV Broadcasting of Georgia. From 1958, he was the secretary responsible for the magazine Niangi  and a member of the editorial board, writing under the pseudonym of "Karashoti" (storm);  He was a humble and generous man with great spiritual culture and a writer blessed with artistic taste, fluent in English. This is witnessed through his "English-Georgian Proverbs and Sayings", and translations of William Shakespeare's "Timon of Athens", Jonathan Swift's "Gulliver's Journey", Oscar Wilde's "Dedicated Friend", George Byron's "Sardanapal" and lyrics, etc. He also authored the articles about the progressive foreign literature. In the end, he was working on the translation of The Genius by Dreiser and, in cooperation with the historian V. Machavariani, he was co-writing a film script about Besiki's life.
The subject of our research is to compare and contrast lyric patterns translated by Karchava with the original and analyze the translator's masterpieces. The research findings are presented by taking into account important aspects of Translation Studies.
        In 1965, the publishing house "Nakaduli" published translations of Byron's lyrics, which include seven literary pieces translated by M. Karchava, of which we have selected four for our research.
While examining the originals of Byron's poems and translations by Karchava, we have applied a literary-linguistic analysis and an interdisciplinary method. Literary-linguistic analysis involves the study of the accuracy of language correspondences by comparing the original with the translation, taking the features of figurative language (epithet, metaphor, comparison, hyperbole, etc.) into account. The interdisciplinary method simultaneously includes the data of the disciplines such as linguistics, literary studies, and cultural studies.

Lines Addressed to the REV. J.T. BECHER on His Advising the Author
to Mix More with Society

        Politics holds an important place in Byron's lyrics. A romanticist author, to whom the flattery and injustice of England's aristocratic circles were totally unacceptable, firmly opposed his opponents with his fierce artistic expression. That is why he was repeatedly condemned or slandered among the politicians and academia. The poet's frustration and resentment also influenced his poetry. This was the theme of the given verse.
        Blessed John Thomas Becher (1770-1848) was an English clergyman, social reformer, and Vicar-General of Southwinsmaster in 1818-1840. Becher and Byron became friends when the poet stayed on holiday at Southwell. The views of Becher, a distinguished figure, were important to the poet.
The poem is written in the second person. It clearly shows the sadness and idealistic beliefs of the dissatisfied poet - the reality of modern England is metaphorically "Etna’s cave" for him. Karchava diligently and carefully rendered the poem, perfectly representing the author’s thought. The translation maintains the theme and the idea of the original text, the poet's warm attitude to Becher, the way he considers his advice, communicating sincerely that he cannot tolerate injustice, hypocrisy, and flattery and being part of the society that is demeaning. Byron addresses Becher:
                 5                                     7                           2
,,ძვირფასო ბიჩერ, / ჭკვიანურად მარიგებ, / მირჩევ,
               5                                  4                         5
ხალხს გაერიე / -  განდეგილად / განზე ნუ დგახარ,
               5                          7                                       2
მაგრამ მე მაინც / მარტოობის სიყვარულს / ვირჩევ,
                      5                          4                        5
რად მივეტმასნო, / ვისიც ისეც  / შემზარავს ნახვა“ [Byron, 1965:12].
             4                         3                        5
„Dear BECHER, / you tell me / to mix with mankind;
              5                       5                   2
I cannot deny / such a precept is / wise;
               5                        3                          5
But retirement / accords with / the tone of my mind:
                  5                      5                2
I will not descend / to a world I / despise“ [Byron, 2012:756].
        The original verse of the poem has 12 syllables in every line, with the exception of the 3rd one containing 13 syllables. Cross-rhyme is used. The translation is written in 14-syllable lines, still cross-rhyme, which keeps Byronic musicality. The translator uses archaisms to express Byron’s feelings and courage, giving the text an archaic flavor and exhibiting a particular resemblace to the nineteenth-century Georgian romanticists’ works.
        In M. Karchava's translation, Becher recommends the poet to mix with people, and in the original text – to mix with humanity, which is a broader concept. This indicates that Byron should have taken the intentions of mankind into consideration, while the translator replaces this word with the notion - people, which narrows the idea, and the reader of the translation is under the impression that only the English people are considered. Here, it is demonstrated that Byron had been conscious about his own genius and worldly significance (just like Goethe, Pushkin, Galaktioni and so on).
M. Karchava observes the melody of the originals and correctly determines that Byron places the main emphasis on the beginning of the line. It is an appeal, an emotional exclamation that is valuble for its special tone. Accordingly, in the translation, the beginning of the line, the first term is intonated, each line is divided into three feet, which is rare in poetry; after the first foot there is a strong caesura that expresses the appeal and the emotional "excitement" of the author. The second caesura, however, is weak, but it maintains the verse melody and makes the verse correspond to the verse structure. The translator also chooses three-foot lines and repeats exactly the same types of the original Caesura.
From time to time Byron changes the number of syllables in a line so as not to damage the rhyme and melody of the verse:
         5                                  7                                    2
,,რომ ფოქსივით და / ჩათამივით ვიცოცხლო, / მოვკვდე,
             5                          4                         5
გადავიტანდი / ყოველნაირ / ხიფათს და ურვას,
             5                                       7                                  2
თვით სიკვდილითაც / უკვდავების სფეროში / მოხვდნენ,
                   5                          4                           5
შარავანდედად / იმათ საფლავს / დიდება ხურავს“ [Byron, 1965:13].
                                                                    4                   3                          5
„For the life / of a Fox, / of a Chatham the death,
            4                                        6                               3
What censure, what / danger, what woe would / I brave!
         4                           3                          5
Their lives did / not end, when / they yielded their breath,
              4                         6                       3
Their glory / illumines the gloom / of their grave“ [Byron, 2012:756].
It is interesting that Byron mentions two famous English politicians.
        The poet writes that he wants to live like Fox and die like Chatham, though the translator says that the author wants to live as well as to die just like they do. This is not an important mistake. A look at the path of life of both politicians reveals why Byron was fascinated by Fox's way of life and the demise of Chatham.
Both the original and the translation have nine stanzas. The translation follows the content of the original and the translator does not have to make any significant changes. He tries to adjust Byron's thought to Georgian taste and introduces slight deviations. For example, in order to create an interesting metaphoric image, instead of Etna's cave, he employs a different expression - Etna's throat thus contributing to compelling imagery. For the Byron’s phrase - Borders Can Not Be caught, the translator uses different expressions - ვერ მოთოკავს. Instead of Byronic interjections, Karchava employs artistic repetition and folk style of narration to achieve emotional intensification.
E.g., ,,არ შეიძლება მოითოკოს, არა და არა...“ ,,ჰოდა, რად უნდა გავერიო მე მონებს შორის...“ ,,ავიტანო სხვის კუდში თრევა...“ ,,რად გავიყრუო მე ყურები ზვიადთა ბოდვით...“  He uses the word ”Dzmadnapitsi” (sworn brother), which is foreign to English vocabulary and culture. In this way he somehow tries to make the translation sound” more Georgian”, at the same time, striving to maintain the accuracy of the original.
Thus, the translation of this poem can be positively appreciated, as it demonstrates the translator's diligence and professionalism.

Stanzas To A Lady, On Leaving England
As Byron's contemporaries suggest, Byron called Lady Masters Mary Cheworth, who was his great love. The poem is dedicated to her and it has a romantic content. In addition to his love for the woman, the poet's patriotic attitude and disobedient spirit are clearly evident, making the content of the poem very interesting.
This is evidenced by allegorical images: ”Spetaki apra” (the poet's soul) and “the wave higher than the mast” (life's resistance). There are 6 lines in each verse of the poem. Such poems were called Mustazads in Georgia. As A. Silagadze explains, Georgian Mustazads, "the forms made of verses of different lengths (four-stanza, five-stanza, six-stanza, etc.) coincide with the forms of Mustazad found in Oriental poetry ..." %5


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